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The book was based on the work of Girolamo Cardano, an Italian physician, who believed that it wasn’t necessary to hear words in order online pharmacy kamagra to understand ideas. To clarify, there is a big difference between ASL as a language versus signed English. Those who speak ASL fluently use their eyes, hands, face and body. The vocabulary and grammar of ASL is online pharmacy kamagra also different from English. As a result, learning to speak ASL as a language will be more demanding than just learning to communicate with signs and fingerspelling.

Who uses sign language?. Some experts argue early man online pharmacy kamagra likely used signs to communicate long before spoken language was created. And while we’ve all come a long way since then, whether you’ve pressed your index finger against your lips to hush a noisy child, raised your hand to hail a cab, or pointed to an item on the menu, you’ve used sign language in its simplest form. Anywhere from 500,000 to two million speak American Sign Language (ASL) in the United States alone. It’s the fifth most-used online pharmacy kamagra language in the United States behind Spanish, Italian, German and French.

While that ranking varies depending on the source, it should definitely be considered as one of your options if you’re looking to learn a second language. Related. Being Deaf gives this clinical audiologist a unique perspective The Deaf dommunity American Sign Language is online pharmacy kamagra the primary language of many North Americans who are deaf or hard of hearing and identify as part of the Deaf community. Not only is ASL different from signed English, it is also as different from its European counterpart as English is to French. Much like those with normal hearing can detect accents from different parts of the country, those who speak ASL can also detect geographical dialects and slang.

Parents As much as 90 percent of deaf children are born online pharmacy kamagra to hearing parents, which can make learning sign language a family affair. Parents who learn ASL along with their child often find it easier to communicate on a deeper level with their deaf child. Studies also indicate when a child who is deaf or hard of hearing learns ASL, their ability to learn their native language improves. The same is true of learning to online pharmacy kamagra lipread. Some parents of normal hearing children teach their infants signed English.

Advocates believe babies can learn to communicate their needs – such as being hungry or thirsty – online pharmacy kamagra through the use of signs before they are able to speak. Scientists believe children who learn a second language when they are very young develop better language skills. Due to its visual nature, sign language is a great tool for early readers and enhances spelling skills. Professionals If you’re employed, learning ASL may online pharmacy kamagra enhance your career and give added benefit to the workplace. Educators.

Today more than ever it’s common for educators to have children who are deaf or hard of hearing in their classroom. Many opt online pharmacy kamagra to learn ASL for this reason alone. However, others decide to become certified to teach ASL in the public schools. Educators with ASL teacher certification are qualified to teach ASL to both hearing and deaf students. First responders online pharmacy kamagra.

According to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), hearing loss is the third most prevalent chronic health condition facing older adults. As the population ages and the incidence of hearing loss increases, sign language becomes more and more relevant – especially in emergency situations when communicating with someone who is deaf or hard of hearing is critical. Service providers online pharmacy kamagra. Social workers, counselors, psychologists and medical professionals are also finding it beneficial to learn sign language. In fact, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires that hospitals provide an appropriate means of communication to any patient, family member or visitor who is deaf or hard of hearing.

The ADA also covers legal, education, law enforcement and employment online pharmacy kamagra systems. Athletes Baseball aficionados may be interested in learning that the signals baseball players use to communicate with each other are the result of a deaf baseball player by the name of William “Dummy” Hoy who played for the Chicago White Sox in the early 1900s. Since umpires shouted all the calls at that time, Dummy and his third-base coach worked out a series of signals to communicate balls and strikes. The practice online pharmacy kamagra caught fire and soon became common use among players, managers and umpires. Today, most every major sport uses some type of sign language between coach and player.

Not only does it keep the other team guessing, it also provides a great way to communicate strategy when fans are making it difficult to hear. Why you should online pharmacy kamagra learn sign language It’s growing in popularity. Since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act, ASL has become one of the most popular language classes in colleges and universities. These top universities for Deaf students excel at providing services and online pharmacy kamagra meeting the specific needs of the Deaf community. Learning a second language is good for your brain health.

Swedish scientists discovered that learning a foreign language can actually increase the size of your brain. Scientists also know that people who speak more than one language fluently have better memories and online pharmacy kamagra can delay the onset of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The rewards are immeasurable. When someone you love can’t hear, ASL is a great way to communicate in a rich, meaningful way. It’s also the best way to develop awareness and sensitivity to the Deaf online pharmacy kamagra culture, a community of non-hearing individuals which number more than one million in the United States alone.

Whether you teach your baby to sign or learn ASL to communicate with a deaf friend or family member, you are using a full-bodied form of communication that will enhance your relationship as it improves your mind and spirit. Ready to get started?. Check out some of our online pharmacy kamagra favorite smartphone ASL apps.He’s been a scientist for the federal government, a conservationist, a B17 pilot in WWII and now, at 102 years of age, California resident Irvin Poff is a cochlear implant recipient.Irvin Poff, with a photo collage celebrating102 years. Poff said he was getting by with his second set of hearing aids until the kamagra hit. When everyone started wearing masks, his ability to understand speech diminished significantly.

He had already given up going to the movie theater to watch his favorite Westerns so when he saw an ad for cochlear implants in a magazine, he called the number and asked online pharmacy kamagra for more information. Poff is part of a growing trend. More seniors are getting cochlear implants when hearing aids aren't quite enough to address their hearing loss. What online pharmacy kamagra is a cochlear implant?. A cochlear implant is a medical device that's surgically implanted behind the ear, on the temporal bone.

The internal receiver collects sound signals from the external transmitter, converts them to electrical pulses, then sends them to electrodes that have been inserted in the inner ear. These pulses travel along the auditory nerve for the brain to interpret as sound online pharmacy kamagra. By bypassing the damage in the inner ear, a cochlear implant can give those who are deaf or have profound hearing loss the sense of sound so that they can understand speech and noise in their environment. Speech comprehension was low A subsequent hearing evaluation with an audiologist revealed that Poff’s speech comprehension was less than 30 percent, so he was referred to Dr. Akira Ishiyama, MD, a neurotologist and faculty member in the Head and Neck Surgery Division at the online pharmacy kamagra UCLA Medical Center, to see if he was a candidate for cochlear implant surgery.

€œ[The doctor] was trying to determine if I had the 'stick-to-itiveness' to stay with it long enough for it to work out,” Poff explained. €œI know it’s unusual for someone my age to have a cochlear implant just as it’s unusual for someone to live to be my age.” “I know it’s unusual for someone my age to have a cochlear implant just as it’s unusual for someone online pharmacy kamagra to live to be my age.” In addition to a hearing evaluation, cochlear implant candidates undergo additional medical and psychological evaluations, imaging, and counseling to make sure they understand the process, the follow-up commitment, and what they can expect from the device. From start to finish, the evaluation, surgery, and recovery period can take several months. A whole new world of hearing Three weeks after meeting with Dr. Ishiyama, Poff received a cochlear implant in his left ear under online pharmacy kamagra local anesthesia.

(He still wears a hearing aid in his right ear.) Four weeks later, after the incision had completely healed, he went back to UCLA to have the processor connected. Soon after, he started hearing sounds he hadn't in a long time. €œThe first thing I noticed was my simple little electric clock,” online pharmacy kamagra Poff said. €œI could hear the tick tock real plain. I hadn’t heard it before.

Now I can hear it clear across the room.” Once the processor is activated, it often takes awhile for the brain online pharmacy kamagra to make sense of the sound it is receiving. Recipients commit to a series of outpatient appointments to have the processor’s programming adjusted as the nerves and brain become accustomed to hearing again. This is known as auditory rehabilitation. Since online pharmacy kamagra his processor was activated, Poff says he can understand twice as many of the words he could before the surgery. He’s listening to CDs in the car again because the implant has improved his ability to hear high-frequency sounds.

But the best thing is the ability to be part of the conversation again. 'It's all good' “I walk around the block every day—one third of a mile—to keep my heart online pharmacy kamagra moving," he said. "I know all of those people on the block and have three or four I have contact with most every day. Those contacts are better now that I can understand.” Now that he’s hearing better, Poff says he’s “pretty healthy except for a little asthma and problems associated with my age.” His eyes are good, he says, and his driver’s license is valid until he turns 105. €œIf I online pharmacy kamagra live until then.” He just might.

€œIt’s all good,” Poff said. €œI look forward to the next day and don’t worry about what happened the day before because it doesn’t matter.”.

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These are definitely steps in the right direction but more needs to be done worldwide to care kamagra oral jelly canada for those of us with Long erectile dysfunction treatment.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.Using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore multiperspectivesInterpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was originally developed in 1995 by Johnathan Smith as a method to undertake experiential research in psychology and has gained prominence across health and social sciences as a way to understand and interpret topics that are complex and emotionally laden, such as chronic illness experiences.1 2 IPA aims to uncover what a lived experience means to the individual through a process of in-depth reflective inquiry.3 The IPA draws on phenomenological thinking, with the purpose to return ‘to the things themselves’3 (p168). However, IPA also acknowledges that we are each influenced by the worlds in which we live and the experiences kamagra oral jelly canada we encounter. Therefore, IPA is an interpretative process between the researcher and researched, influenced predominantly by Heidegger’s interpretive phenomenology, hermeneutics and idiography. Within IPA, it is typical for researchers to select a small homogenous sample to explore kamagra oral jelly canada the shared perspectives on a single phenomenon of interest4.

Within IPA studies, the focus has been on individual people living within diverse settings and populations such as chronic or long-term illnesses. The focus is on understandings of rich, lived experiences, and, kamagra oral jelly canada given the small samples, IPA studies have typically not focused on those connected to the person living with diversity or disease. Recently, there has been an interest within IPA to suggest the value of capturing more complex data through multiple perspectives using designs and processes to address this shortcoming in IPA.4 This may involve the use of multiple participants and a range of data collection methods such as the use of dyads or focus groups. The aim of this paper is to explore the utility of IPA approaches using multiperspectives through focusing on a specific case study to illustrate this approach.Case studyThis case study focuses on an IPA study that focused on the lived experiences of adolescents and young adults (AYA) and their family/significant other living with kamagra oral jelly canada malignant melanoma (MM).

Families and other people important to the experience can provide a logical and insightful perspectives on a shared psychosocial phenomenon. Multiperspective designs are gaining increasing prominence among researchers who recognise that an experience such as living with a long-term disease ‘is not solely located within the accounts of those kamagra oral jelly canada with the diagnosis’4 (p182). For the purposes of this case study, the family/significant others were seen as integral to the experience for the AYA living with MM and their journey together in supporting one another through this experience.During the 1970s, melanoma in AYA was rare, but over the intervening decades, there has been a marked increase in the reported incidence of MM in AYA around the globe.5–7 There is a significant amount of biomedical empirical research evidence on melanoma but a dearth of qualitative research around the lived experience for AYA and their family/significant other living with this disease.A purposive sample of young participants, 16–26 years, were identified by the Clinical Nurse Specialists that ensured the participants were experiencing the same phenomenon.8–10 Although the intention was to carry out individual interviews with all the participants following the typical IPA approach, most of the AYA lived at home and the young participants expressed the desire for a shared interview, which was accommodated by the first author. The four individuals (n=4) and three-dyad interviews (n=6) allowed for the shared experience and the phenomena to be captured and understood through data analysis and interpretation.4 Although the use kamagra oral jelly canada of individual and joint interviews had implications for data collection and analysis—such as the parent wishing to have their voice heard over their child—the researcher had to ensure that questions were also directed to the young participant in order to capture both voices.

In depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken within the AYAs primary treatment centre on the day of the outpatient appointment and they were often accompanied with someone who was significant in their journey. Interviews lasted between 90 and 120 min.This study was novel to the experiences of kamagra oral jelly canada AYA and family/significant other living with MM, which offers a new perspective on the dynamics that are present within the MM experience. Our findings can be valuable for both an AYA, family/significant other and health and social care professionals. Both AYA and the family/significant other seemed to consider the emotional implications of talking about the kamagra oral jelly canada disease.

Throughout this process, participants seemed to strive for a shared understanding of the MM experience, a story that unified rather than divided them.Strengths and challengesA social phenomenological perspective demands an emphasis on understanding the participant’s experience of the world from their situation and then interpreting how that understanding is intersubjectively constructed.4 11 In-depth semistructured interviews, therefore, offered an appropriate and compelling method to generate kamagra oral jelly canada data that permitted such insights and reflections, allowing participants to reconstruct their understandings of a phenomenon3 through narrative. Qualitative researchers are increasingly using ‘oint interviews’ (dyad) to explore the lived experiences in health and capture the multiperspective. However, the decision of whether to interview participants separately or together as a dyad is an important consideration because it influences the nature of the data collected and having two different types of data kamagra oral jelly canada. Each transcript was analysed separately both for the AYA and then the family/significant other, whether as an individual or dyad.

This was important as the researcher (first author) was not sure whether the findings for the AYA would be different from that of kamagra oral jelly canada the family/significant other. There also needs to be time built into the study for the data analysis and IPA founders suggest following the IPA methodology, researchers should follow the key steps.3 Analysing the data individually allowed the narrative to ‘open up’ and reveal the experiences of the participant’s as various ‘individual parts’ and then as a ‘whole’.2 3 Throughout the data analysis, the six key steps supported the rigour, transparency and coherence of the findings.Findings of the case studyThis study was organised hierarchically into themes and following the iterative process of analysis, the 'Life interrupted' meta-narrative was identified from all the participant’s lives. €˜Life interrupted’ speaks to the various ways that participants’ lives kamagra oral jelly canada were interrupted due to the cancer diagnosis, and the journey this disease took them on as well as the unsettling emotions that were experienced during this journey. This is woven into the whole journey experience and figure 1 illustrates the core conceptual thread and the interconnection between AYA and the family/significant other.

The interconnection between the four super-ordinate and the kamagra oral jelly canada 12 subthemes is also shown. The ebb and flow of familial relationships can, in some situations, magnify the impact of the physical disease, with the emotional turmoil often rivalling the physical manifestation of the disease.8 11 Conversely, relationships may help the AYA and the family/significant other cope with the disease in a more positive and supportive way. The importance of these unique and changing relationships in living with MM should not be underestimated, and kamagra oral jelly canada psychosocial research about YPs experiences of cancer would be enhanced through the further use and development of the multiperspective approach underpinned by IPA as used in this study, which is able to capture these dynamic inter-relationships. A visual representation is provided within figure 1 and how the individual voices were captured through the individual and dyad interview.Visual multi-perspective IPA design.

IPA, interpretative phenomenological kamagra oral jelly canada analysis." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Visual multi-perspective IPA design. IPA, interpretative phenomenological analysis.ConclusionsThis paper presents experiences of life events and processes that are intersubjective and relational. Meaning is ‘in between’ us but is rarely studied that way in phenomenological kamagra oral jelly canada inquiry.4 The meanings of events and processes are often contested and can sometimes be understood in a more complex manner when viewed from the multiple perspectives involved in the system that constitutes them. Multiple perspective designs can be a useful way for IPA researchers to address research questions that engage with these phenomena.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required..

As I Viagra cost write this editorial, it is almost 14 months since I first online pharmacy kamagra developed erectile dysfunction treatment symptoms and my journey with long erectile dysfunction treatment continues. In their guideline on long erectile dysfunction treatment NICE/SIGN define post-erectile dysfunction treatment syndrome as signs and symptoms that develop during or after a erectile dysfunction treatment , continuing for more than 12 online pharmacy kamagra weeks, and not explained by an alternative diagnosis. More information about long erectile dysfunction treatment can be found in the blog written by @jakesuett and me in September 2020. Data from the Office for National Statistics in April 2021 estimated that 1.1 million people in the UK reported experiencing online pharmacy kamagra some form of long erectile dysfunction treatment symptoms.

Despite this, the UK Government continues to focus on the outcomes of erectile dysfunction treatment being binary. Dying or online pharmacy kamagra surviving. Box 1 provides details about some useful sources of information on long erectile dysfunction treatment.Box 1 Useful sources of information about long erectile dysfunction treatmentNICE/SIGN rapid guideline published in December 2020.The NIHR review of evidence. Living with erectile dysfunction treatment—second Review (March 2021).Paper in nature online pharmacy kamagra in April 2021 provides a summary of how post acute erectile dysfunction treatment (long erectile dysfunction treatment) can affect different organ systems.Paper published in March 2021 describing the range of signs and symptoms experienced by people with long erectile dysfunction treatment via a social media survey.Everyone’s long erectile dysfunction treatment journey is different.

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As suggested by the NICE/SIGN guidelines, I had some tests ordered to rule out any organic causes for my symptoms. The blood online pharmacy kamagra tests showed that I had developed type 2 diabetes. A brain MRI indicated I have had a stroke at some point.Nowadays, there is an expectation that most illnesses can be cured. This makes it more difficult when online pharmacy kamagra there are no answers.

As a patient group we struggled, and in many cases, are still struggling, to get access to online pharmacy kamagra the tests we needed which exacerbated this situation. This is perhaps not surprising in the middle of a kamagra. I always felt slightly uncomfortable fighting for access to tests when I knew the NHS online pharmacy kamagra was at crisis point but as a registered nurse had some knowledge as to where to turn for help. This was particularly helpful when I was rung with the results of my tests following my long erectile dysfunction treatment clinic appointment.

Having been told I had developed type 2 diabetes, the advice was to ‘go on a online pharmacy kamagra low sugar diet’ and have my bloods tested again in a few months. However, I was able to reach out to friends for advice as well as referring myself to the diabetes nurse at my GP practice. I am now on a low carb diet and have been prescribed metformin that would online pharmacy kamagra not have happened if I had just followed the initial advice. Getting advice about my stroke has not been so easy.

Over 6 weeks down the line, I am still awaiting my referral to the stroke clinic.On an intellectual level, as someone who has spent much of their nursing career promoting evidence-based practice, it has been online pharmacy kamagra interesting having a new disease and observing as information about potential treatments emerge. People within the long erectile dysfunction treatment community were willing to try almost anything in an attempt to get better. A scene from the recent TV series It’s a sin struck a chord—someone who thought they had AIDS/HIV in the mid 1980s ringing a hotline and asking whether a list of potential cures, including drinking bleach, would cure him.As a registered online pharmacy kamagra nurse and editor of Evidence Based Nursing, I found it challenging when other people with long erectile dysfunction treatment appeared to me to be ‘grasping at straws’ and trying any treatment that was available despite a lack of evidence to support it. I understand this is a reaction to the lack of available treatments as well as many people being told by the medical profession their symptoms were ‘all in their head’.

But, on online pharmacy kamagra occasion, it made it difficult being part of these groups. Going forward, we need robust research to identify treatments for long erectile dysfunction treatment. An international multistakeholder forum has recently produced a list of research priorities for online pharmacy kamagra long erectile dysfunction treatment. Governments are beginning to allocate money for research into long erectile dysfunction treatment—for example, in the USA, the NIH has put US$1.15 billion aside.

These are definitely steps in the right direction but more needs to be done worldwide to care for those of us with Long erectile dysfunction treatment.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.Using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore multiperspectivesInterpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was originally developed in 1995 by Johnathan Smith as a method to undertake experiential research in psychology and has gained prominence across health and social sciences as a way to understand and interpret topics that are complex and emotionally laden, such as chronic illness experiences.1 2 IPA aims to uncover what a online pharmacy kamagra lived experience means to the individual through a process of in-depth reflective inquiry.3 The IPA draws on phenomenological thinking, with the purpose to return ‘to the things themselves’3 (p168). However, IPA also acknowledges that we are each influenced by the worlds in which we live and the online pharmacy kamagra experiences we encounter. Therefore, IPA is an interpretative process between the researcher and researched, influenced predominantly by Heidegger’s interpretive phenomenology, hermeneutics and idiography. Within IPA, it is typical for researchers to select a small homogenous sample to online pharmacy kamagra explore the shared perspectives on a single phenomenon of interest4.

Within IPA studies, the focus has been on individual people living within diverse settings and populations such as chronic or long-term illnesses. The focus is on understandings of rich, lived experiences, and, given the small samples, IPA studies have online pharmacy kamagra typically not focused on those connected to the person living with diversity or disease. Recently, there has been an interest within IPA to suggest the value of capturing more complex data through multiple perspectives using designs and processes to address this shortcoming in IPA.4 This may involve the use of multiple participants and a range of data collection methods such as the use of dyads or focus groups. The aim of this paper is to explore the utility of IPA approaches using online pharmacy kamagra multiperspectives through focusing on a specific case study to illustrate this approach.Case studyThis case study focuses on an IPA study that focused on the lived experiences of adolescents and young adults (AYA) and their family/significant other living with malignant melanoma (MM).

Families and other people important to the experience can provide a logical and insightful perspectives on a shared psychosocial phenomenon. Multiperspective designs online pharmacy kamagra are gaining increasing prominence among researchers who recognise that an experience such as living with a long-term disease ‘is not solely located within the accounts of those with the diagnosis’4 (p182). For the purposes of this case study, the family/significant others were seen as integral to the experience for the AYA living with MM and their journey together in supporting one another through this experience.During the 1970s, melanoma in AYA was rare, but over the intervening decades, there has been a marked increase in the reported incidence of MM in AYA around the globe.5–7 There is a significant amount of biomedical empirical research evidence on melanoma but a dearth of qualitative research around the lived experience for AYA and their family/significant other living with this disease.A purposive sample of young participants, 16–26 years, were identified by the Clinical Nurse Specialists that ensured the participants were experiencing the same phenomenon.8–10 Although the intention was to carry out individual interviews with all the participants following the typical IPA approach, most of the AYA lived at home and the young participants expressed the desire for a shared interview, which was accommodated by the first author. The four individuals (n=4) and three-dyad interviews (n=6) allowed for the shared experience and the phenomena to be captured and understood through data analysis and interpretation.4 Although the use online pharmacy kamagra of individual and joint interviews had implications for data collection and analysis—such as the parent wishing to have their voice heard over their child—the researcher had to ensure that questions were also directed to the young participant in order to capture both voices.

In depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken within the AYAs primary treatment centre on the day of the outpatient appointment and they were often accompanied with someone who was significant in their journey. Interviews lasted between 90 and 120 min.This study was novel to the experiences of AYA and family/significant other living with MM, which offers a new online pharmacy kamagra perspective on the dynamics that are present within the MM experience. Our findings can be valuable for both an AYA, family/significant other and health and social care professionals. Both AYA and the online pharmacy kamagra family/significant other seemed to consider the emotional implications of talking about the disease.

Throughout this process, participants seemed to strive for a shared understanding of the MM experience, a story that unified rather than divided them.Strengths and challengesA social phenomenological perspective demands an emphasis on understanding the participant’s experience of the world from their situation and then interpreting how that understanding is intersubjectively online pharmacy kamagra constructed.4 11 In-depth semistructured interviews, therefore, offered an appropriate and compelling method to generate data that permitted such insights and reflections, allowing participants to reconstruct their understandings of a phenomenon3 through narrative. Qualitative researchers are increasingly using ‘oint interviews’ (dyad) to explore the lived experiences in health and capture the multiperspective. However, the decision of whether to interview participants separately or together as online pharmacy kamagra a dyad is an important consideration because it influences the nature of the data collected and having two different types of data. Each transcript was analysed separately both for the AYA and then the family/significant other, whether as an individual or dyad.

This was important as online pharmacy kamagra the researcher (first author) was not sure whether the findings for the AYA would be different from that of the family/significant other. There also needs to be time built into the study for the data analysis and IPA founders suggest following the IPA methodology, researchers should follow the key steps.3 Analysing the data individually allowed the narrative to ‘open up’ and reveal the experiences of the participant’s as various ‘individual parts’ and then as a ‘whole’.2 3 Throughout the data analysis, the six key steps supported the rigour, transparency and coherence of the findings.Findings of the case studyThis study was organised hierarchically into themes and following the iterative process of analysis, the 'Life interrupted' meta-narrative was identified from all the participant’s lives. €˜Life interrupted’ speaks to the various ways that participants’ lives were interrupted due to the cancer diagnosis, and the journey this disease took them on as well as the unsettling emotions that were experienced during this online pharmacy kamagra journey. This is woven into the whole journey experience and figure 1 illustrates the core conceptual thread and the interconnection between AYA and the family/significant other.

The interconnection between the four super-ordinate and the 12 online pharmacy kamagra subthemes is also shown. The ebb and flow of familial relationships can, in some situations, magnify the impact of the physical disease, with the emotional turmoil often rivalling the physical manifestation of the disease.8 11 Conversely, relationships may help the AYA and the family/significant other cope with the disease in a more positive and supportive way. The importance of these unique and changing relationships online pharmacy kamagra in living with MM should not be underestimated, and psychosocial research about YPs experiences of cancer would be enhanced through the further use and development of the multiperspective approach underpinned by IPA as used in this study, which is able to capture these dynamic inter-relationships. A visual representation is provided within figure 1 and how the individual voices were captured through the individual and dyad interview.Visual multi-perspective IPA design.

IPA, interpretative online pharmacy kamagra phenomenological analysis." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Visual multi-perspective IPA design. IPA, interpretative phenomenological analysis.ConclusionsThis paper presents experiences of life events and processes that are intersubjective and relational. Meaning is ‘in between’ us but is rarely studied online pharmacy kamagra that way in phenomenological inquiry.4 The meanings of events and processes are often contested and can sometimes be understood in a more complex manner when viewed from the multiple perspectives involved in the system that constitutes them. Multiple perspective designs can be a useful way for IPA researchers to address research questions that engage with these phenomena.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required..

Kamagra side effects dangers

How to kamagra side effects dangers cite this article:Singh https://www.actio-rae.eu/buy-propecia-ireland/ OP. Mental health in diverse India. Need for kamagra side effects dangers advocacy. Indian J Psychiatry 2021;63:315-6”Unity in diversity” - That is the theme of India which we are quite proud of. We have diversity in terms of geography – From the Himalayas to the deserts to kamagra side effects dangers the seas.

Every region has its own distinct culture and food. There are so many varieties of dress and language. There is huge difference between the states in terms of development, attitude toward women, health infrastructure, kamagra side effects dangers child mortality, and other sociodemographic development indexes. There is now ample evidence that sociocultural factors influence mental health. Compton and Shim[1] have described in kamagra side effects dangers their model of gene environment interaction how public policies and social norms act on the distribution of opportunity leading to social inequality, exclusion, poor environment, discrimination, and unemployment.

This in turn leads to reduced options, poor choices, and high-risk behavior. Combining genetic vulnerability and early brain insult with low access to health care leads to poor mental health, disease, and morbidity.When we come to the kamagra side effects dangers field of mental health, we find huge differences between different states of India. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was markedly different while it was 5.8 and 5.1 for Assam and Uttar Pradesh at the lower end of the spectrum, it was 13.9 and 14.1 for Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra at the higher end of the spectrum. There was also a huge difference between the rural areas and metros, particularly in terms of psychosis and bipolar disorders.[2] The difference was distinct not only in the prevalence but also in the type of psychiatric disorders. While the more developed southern states had higher kamagra side effects dangers prevalence of adult-onset disorders such as depression and anxiety, the less developed northern states had more of childhood onset disorders.

This may be due to lead toxicity, nutritional status, and perinatal issues. Higher rates of depression kamagra side effects dangers and anxiety were found in females. Apart from the genetic and hormonal factors, increase was attributed to gender discrimination, violence, sexual abuse, and adverse sociocultural norms. Marriage was found to be a negative prognostic indicator contrary to the western norms.[3]Cultural influences on the presentation of psychiatric kamagra side effects dangers disorders are apparent. Being in recessive position in the family is one of the strongest predictors of psychiatric illnesses and psychosomatic disorders.

The presentation of depressive and anxiety disorders with more somatic symptoms results from inability to express due to unequal power equation in the family rather than the lack of expressions. Apart from culture bound syndromes, the role of cultural idioms of distress in manifestations of psychiatric symptoms is well acknowledged.When we look into suicide data, suicide in lower kamagra side effects dangers socioeconomic strata (annual income <1 lakh) was 92,083, in annual income group of 1–5 lakhs, it was 41,197, and in higher income group, it was 4726. Among those who committed suicide, 67% were young adults, 34% had family problems, 23.4% of suicides occurred in daily laborers, 10.1% in unemployed persons, and 7.4% in farmers.[4]While there are huge regional differences in mental health issues, the challenges in mental health in India remain stigma reduction, conducting research on efficacy of early intervention, reaching the unreached, gender sensitive services, making quality mental healthcare accessible and available, suicide prevention, reduction of substance abuse, implementing insurance for mental health and reducing out-of-pocket expense, and finally, improving care for homeless mentally ill. All these require sustained advocacy aimed at promoting rights of mentally ill persons and reducing stigma and discriminations kamagra side effects dangers. It consists of various actions aimed at changing the attitudinal barriers in achieving positive mental health outcomes in the general population.

Psychiatrists as Mental Health Advocates There is a debate whether psychiatrists who are overburdened with clinical care could or should be involved in the advocacy activities which require skills in other areas, and sometimes, they find themselves at the receiving end of mental health advocates. We must be involved and pathways should be to build technical evidence for mapping out the problem, cost-effective kamagra side effects dangers interventions, and their efficacy.Advocacy can be done at institutional level, organizational level, and individual level. There has been huge work done in this regard at institution level. Important research work done in this regard includes the National Mental Health Survey, National Survey on kamagra side effects dangers Extent and Pattern of Substance Use in India, Global Burden of Diseases in Indian States, and Trajectory of Brain Development. Other activities include improving the infrastructure of mental hospitals, telepsychiatry services, provision of free drugs, providing training to increase the number of service providers.

Similarly, at organizational level, the Indian Psychiatric Society (IPS) has filed a case for kamagra side effects dangers lacunae in Mental Health-care Act, 2017. Another case filed by the IPS lead to change of name of the film from “Mental Hai Kya” to “Judgemental Hai Kya.” In LGBT issue, the IPS statement was quoted in the final judgement on the decriminalization of homosexuality. The IPS has also started helplines at different levels and media interactions. The Indian Journal kamagra side effects dangers of Psychiatry has also come out with editorials highlighting the need of care of marginalized population such as migrant laborers and persons with dementia. At an individual level, we can be involved in ensuring quality treatment, respecting dignity and rights of the patient, sensitization of staff, working with patients and caregivers to plan services, and being involved locally in media and public awareness activities.The recent experience of Brazil is an eye opener where suicide reduction resulted from direct cash transfer pointing at the role of economic decision in suicide.[5] In India where economic inequality is increasing, male-to-female ratio is abysmal in some states (877 in Haryana to 1034 in Kerala), our actions should be sensitive to this regional variation.

When the kamagra side effects dangers enemy is economic inequality, our weapon is research highlighting the role of these factors on mental health. References 1.Compton MT, Shim RS. The social determinants kamagra side effects dangers of mental health. Focus 2015;13:419-25. 2.Gururaj G, Varghese M, Benegal V, Rao GN, Pathak K, Singh LK, et al.

National Mental Health kamagra side effects dangers Survey of India, 2015-16. Prevalence, Patterns and Outcomes. Bengaluru. National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, NIMHANS Publication No. 129.

2016. 3.Sagar R, Dandona R, Gururaj G, Dhaliwal RS, Singh A, Ferrari A, et al. The burden of mental disorders across the states of India. The Global Burden of Disease Study 1990–2017. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7:148-61.

4.National Crime Records Bureau, 2019. Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India. 2019. Available from. Https://ncrb.gov.in.

[Last accessed on 2021 Jun 24]. 5.Machado DB, Rasella D, dos Santos DN. Impact of income inequality and other social determinants on suicide rate in Brazil. PLoS One 2015;10:e0124934. Correspondence Address:Om Prakash SinghDepartment of Psychiatry, WBMES, Kolkata, West Bengal.

AMRI Hospitals, Kolkata, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_635_21Abstract Sexual health, an essential component of individual's health, is influenced by many complex issues including sexual behavior, attitudes, societal, and cultural factors on the one hand and while on the other hand, biological aspects, genetic predisposition, and associated mental and physical illnesses. Sexual health is a neglected area, even though it influences mortality, morbidity, and disability.

Dhat syndrome (DS), the term coined by Dr. N. N. Wig, has been at the forefront of advancements in understanding and misunderstanding. The concept of DS is still evolving being treated as a culture-bound syndrome in the past to a syndrome of depression and treated as “a culturally determined idiom of distress.” It is bound with myths, fallacies, prejudices, secrecy, exaggeration, and value-laden judgments.

Although it has been reported from many countries, much of the literature has emanated from Asia, that too mainly from India. The research in India has ranged from the study of a few cases in the past to recent national multicentric studies concerning phenomenology and beliefs of patients. The epidemiological studies have ranged from being hospital-based to population-based studies in rural and urban settings. There are studies on the management of individual cases by resolving sexual myths, relaxation exercises, supportive psychotherapy, anxiolytics, and antidepressants to broader and deeper research concerning cognitive behavior therapy. The presentation looks into DS as a model case highlighting the importance of exploring sexual health concerns in the Indian population in general and in particular need to reconsider DS in the light of the newly available literature.

It makes a fervent appeal for the inclusion of DS in the mainstream diagnostic categories in the upcoming revisions of the diagnostic manuals which can pave the way for a better understanding and management of DS and sexual problems.Keywords. Culture-bound syndrome, Dhat syndrome, Dhat syndrome management, Dhat syndrome prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity, sexual disordersHow to cite this article:Sathyanarayana Rao T S. History and mystery of Dhat syndrome. A critical look at the current understanding and future directions. Indian J Psychiatry 2021;63:317-25 Introduction Mr.

President, Chairpersons, my respected teachers and seniors, my professional colleagues and friends, ladies and gentlemen:I deem it a proud privilege and pleasure to receive and to deliver DLN Murti Rao Oration Award for 2020. I am humbled at this great honor and remain grateful to the Indian Psychiatric Society (IPS) in general and the awards committee in particular. I would like to begin my presentation with my homage to Professor DLN Murti Rao, who was a Doyen of Psychiatry.[1] I have a special connection to the name as Dr. Doddaballapura Laxmi Narasimha Murti Rao, apart from a family name, obtained his medical degree from Mysore Medical College, Mysuru, India, the same city where I have served last 33 years in JSS Medical College and JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research. His name carries the reverence in the corridors of the current National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) at Bangalore which was All India Institute of Mental Health, when he served as Head and the Medical Superintendent.

Another coincidence was his untimely demise in 1962, the same year another Doyen Dr. Wig[2],[3] published the article on a common but peculiar syndrome in the Indian context and gave the name Dhat syndrome (DS). Even though Dr. Wig is no more, his legacy of profound contribution to psychiatry and psychiatric education in general and service to the society and Mental Health, in particular, is well documented. His keen observation and study culminated in synthesizing many aspects and developments in DS.I would also like to place on record my humble pranams to my teachers from Christian Medical College, Vellore – Dr.

Abraham Varghese, the first Editor of the Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine and Dr. K. Kuruvilla, Past Editor of Indian Journal of Psychiatry whose legacies I carried forward for both the journals. I must place on record that my journey in the field of Sexual Medicine was sown by Dr. K.

Kuruvilla and subsequent influence of Dr. Ajit Avasthi from Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research from Chandigarh as my role model in the field. There are many more who have shaped and nurtured my interest in the field of sex and sexuality.The term “Dhat” was taken from the Sanskrit language, which is an important word “Dhatu” and has known several meanings such as “metal,” a “medicinal constituent,” which can be considered as most powerful material within the human body.[4] The Dhat disorder is mainly known for “loss of semen”, and the DS is a well-known “culture-bound syndrome (CBS).”[4] The DS leads to several psychosexual disorders such as physical weakness, tiredness, anxiety, appetite loss, and guilt related to the loss of semen through nocturnal emission, in urine and by masturbation as mentioned in many studies.[4],[5],[6] Conventionally, Charaka Samhita mentions “waste of bodily humors” being linked to the “loss of Dhatus.”[5] Semen has even been mentioned by Aristotle as a “soul substance” and weakness associated with its loss.[6] This has led to a plethora of beliefs about “food-blood-semen” relationship where the loss of semen is considered to reduce vitality, potency, and psychophysiological strength. People have variously attributed DS to excessive masturbation, premarital sex, promiscuity, and nocturnal emissions. Several past studies have emphasized that CBS leads to “anxiety for loss of semen” is not only prevalent in the Indian subcontinent but also a global phenomenon.[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20]It is important to note that DS manifestation and the psychosexual features are based on the impact of culture, demographic profiles, and the socioeconomic status of the patients.[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20] According to Leff,[21] culture depends upon norms, values, and myths, based on a specific area, and is also shared by the indigenous individuals of that area.

Tiwari et al.[22] mentioned in their study that “culture is closely associated with mental disorders through social and psychological activities.” With this background, the paper attempts to highlight the multidimensional construct of DS for a better clinical understanding in routine practice. Dhat Syndrome. A Separate Entity or a “Cultural Variant” of Depression Even though DS has been studied for years now, a consensus on the definition is yet to be achieved. It has mostly been conceptualized as a multidimensional psychosomatic entity consisting of anxiety, depressive, somatic, and sexual phenomenology. Most importantly, abnormal and erroneous attributions are considered to be responsible for the genesis of DS.

The most important debate is, however, related to the nosological status of DS. Although considered to a CBS unique to India, it has also been increasingly reported in China, Europe, Japan, Malaysia, Russia, and America.[11] The consistency and validity of its diagnosis have been consistently debated, and one of the most vital questions that emerged was. Can there be another way to conceptualize DS?. There is no single answer to that question. Apart from an independent entity, the diagnostic validity of which has been limited in longitudinal studies,[23] it has also been a cultural variant of depressive and somatization disorders.

Mumford[11] in his study of Asian patients with DS found a significant association with depressed mood, anxiety, and fatigue. Around the same time, another study by Chadha[24] reported comorbidities in DS at a rate of 50%, 32%, and 18% related to depression, somatoform disorders, and anxiety, respectively. Depression continued to be reported as the most common association of DS in many studies.[25],[26] This “cause-effect” dilemma can never be fully resolved. Whether “loss of semen” and the cultural attributions to it leads to the affective symptoms or whether low mood and neuroticism can lead to DS in appropriate cultural context are two sides of the argument. However, the cognitive biases resulting in the attributional errors of DS and the subsequently maintained attitudes with relation to sexuality can be explained by the depressive cognitions and concepts of learned helplessness.

Balhara[27] has argued that since DS is not really culture specific as thought of earlier, it should not be solely categorized as a functional somatic syndrome, as that can have detrimental effects on its understanding and management. He also mentions that the underlying “emotional distress and cultural contexts” are not unique to DS but can be related to any psychiatric syndrome for that matter. On the contrary, other researchers have warned that subsuming DS and other CBS under the broader rubric of “mood disorders” can lead to neglect and reductionism in disorder like DS that can have unique cultural connotations.[28] Over the years, there have been multiple propositions to relook and relabel CBS like DS. Considering it as a variant of depression or somatization can make it a “cultural phenotype” of these disorders in certain regions, thus making it easier for the classificatory systems. This dichotomous debate seems never-ending, but clinically, it is always better to err on over-diagnosing and over-treating depression and anxiety in DS, which can improve the well-being of the distressed patients.

Why Discuss Dhat Syndrome. Implications in Clinical Practice DS might occur independently or associated with multiple comorbidities. It has been a widely recognized clinical condition in various parts of the world, though considered specific to the Indian subcontinent. The presentation can often be polymorphic with symptom clusters of affective, somatic, behavioral, and cognitive manifestations.[29] Being common in rural areas, the first contacts of the patients are frequently traditional faith healers and less often, the general practitioners. A psychiatric referral occurs much later, if at all.

This leads to underdetection and faulty treatments, which can strengthen the already existing misattributions and misinformation responsible for maintaining the disorder. Furthermore, depression and sexual dysfunction can be the important comorbidities that if untreated, lead to significant psychosocial dysfunction and impaired quality of life.[30] Besides many patients of DS believe that their symptoms are due to failure of interpersonal relationships, s, and heredity, which might cause early death and infertility. This contributes to the vicious cycle of fear and panic.[31] Doctor shopping is another challenge and failure to detect and address the concern of DS might lead to dropping out from the care.[15] Rao[17] in their epidemiological study reported 12.5% prevalence in the general population, with 20.5% and 50% suffering from comorbid depression and sexual disorders. The authors stressed upon the importance of early detection of DS for the psychosexual and social well-being. Most importantly, the multidimensional presentation of DS can at certain times be a facade overshadowing underlying neurotic disorders (anxiety, depression, somatoform, hypochondriasis, and phobias), obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders and body dysmorphic disorders, delusional disorders, sexual disorders (premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction) and infectious disorders (urinary tract s, sexually transmitted diseases), and even stress-related manifestations in otherwise healthy individuals.[4],[14],[15] This significant overlap of symptomatology, increased prevalence, and marked comorbidity make it all the more important for physicians to make sense out of the construct of DS.

That can facilitate prompt detection and management of DS in routine clinical practice.In an earlier review study, it was observed that few studies are undertaken to update the research works from published articles as an updated review, systemic review, world literature review, etc., on DS and its management approach.[29],[32],[33],[34],[35] The present paper attempts to compile the evidence till date on DS related to its nosology, critique, manifestations, and management plan. The various empirical studies on DS all over the world will be briefly discussed along with the implications and importance of the syndrome. The Construct of Dhat Syndrome. Summary of Current Evidence DS is a well-known CBS, which is defined as undue concern about the weakening effects after the passage of semen in urine or through nocturnal emission that has been stated by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10).[36] It is also known as “semen loss syndrome” by Shakya,[20] which is prevalent mainly in the Indian subcontinent[37] and has also been reported in the South-Eastern and western population.[15],[16],[20],[32],[38],[39],[40],[41] Individuals with “semen loss anxiety” suffer from a myriad of psychosexual symptoms, which have been attributed to “loss of vital essence through semen” (common in South Asia).[7],[15],[16],[17],[32],[37],[41],[42],[43] The various studies related to attributes of DS and their findings are summarized further.Prakash et al.[5] studied 100 DS patients through 139 symptoms of the Associated Symptoms Scale. They studied sociodemographic profile, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Postgraduate Institute Neuroticism Scale.

The study found a wide range of physical, anxiety, depression, sexual, and cognitive symptoms. Most commonly associated symptoms were found as per score ≥1. This study reported several parameters such as the “sense of being unhealthy” (99%), worry (99%), feeling “no improvement despite treatment” (97%), tension (97%), tiredness (95%), fatigue (95%), weakness (95%), and anxiety (95%). The common sexual disorders were observed as loss of masculinity (83%), erectile dysfunction (54%), and premature ejaculation (53%). Majority of patients had faced mild or moderate level of symptoms in which 47% of the patients reported severe weakness.

Overall distress and dysfunction were observed as 64% and 81% in the studied subjects, respectively.A study in Taiwan involved 87 participants from a Urology clinic. Most of them have sexual neurosis (Shen-K'uei syndrome).[7] More than one-third of the patients belonged to lower social class and symptoms of depression, somatization, anxiety, masturbation, and nocturnal emissions. Other bodily complaints as reported were sleep disturbances, fatigue, dizziness, backache, and weakness. Nearly 80% of them considered that all of their problems were due to masturbatory practices.De Silva and Dissanayake[8] investigated several manifestations on semen loss syndrome in the psychiatric clinic of Colombo General Hospital, Sri Lanka. Beliefs regarding effects of semen loss and help-seeking sought for DS were explored.

38 patients were studied after psychiatrically ill individuals and those with organic disorders were excluded. Duration of semen loss varied from 1 to 20 years. Every participant reported excessive loss of semen and was preoccupied with it. The common forms of semen loss were through nocturnal emission, masturbation, urinary loss, and through sexual activities. Most of them reported multiple modes of semen loss.

Masturbatory frequency and that of nocturnal emissions varied significantly. More than half of the patients reported all types of complaints (psychological, sexual, somatic, and genital).In the study by Chadda and Ahuja,[9] 52 psychiatric patients (mostly adolescents and young adults) complained of passing “Dhat” in urine. They were assessed for a period of 6 months. More than 80% of them complained of body weakness, aches, and pains. More than 50% of the patients suffered from depression and anxiety.

All the participants felt that their symptoms were due to loss of “dhat” in urine, attributed to excessive masturbation, extramarital and premarital sex. Half of those who faced sexual dysfunctions attributed them to semen loss.Mumford[11] proposed a controversial explanation of DS arguing that it might be a part of other psychiatric disorders, like depression. A total of 1000 literate patients were recruited from a medical outdoor in a public sector hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. About 600 educated patients were included as per Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI). Men with DS reported greater symptoms on BSI than those without DS.

60 psychiatric patients were also recruited from the same hospital and diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III-R. Among them, 33% of the patients qualified for “Dhat” items on BSI. The symptoms persisted for more than 15 days. It was observed that symptoms of DS highly correlated with BSI items, namely erectile dysfunction, burning sensation during urination, fatigue, energy loss, and weakness. This comparative study indicated that patients with DS suffered more from depressive disorders than without DS and the age group affected by DS was mostly the young.Grover et al.[15] conducted a study on 780 male patients aged >16 years in five centers (Chandigarh, Jaipur, Faridkot, Mewat, and New Delhi) of Northern India, 4 centers (2 from Kolkata, 1 each in Kalyani and Bhubaneswar) of Eastern India, 2 centers (Agra and Lucknow) of Central India, 2 centers (Ahmedabad and Wardha) of Western India, and 2 centers of Southern India (both located at Mysore) spread across the country by using DS questionnaire.

Nearly one-third of the patients were passing “Dhat” multiple times a week. Among them, nearly 60% passed almost a spoonful of “Dhat” each time during a loss. This work on sexual disorders reported that the passage of “Dhat” was mostly attributed to masturbation (55.1%), dreams on sex (47.3%), sexual desire (42.8%), and high energy foods consumption (36.7%). Mostly, the participants experienced passage of Dhat as “night falls” (60.1%) and “while passing stools” (59.5%). About 75.6% showed weakness in sexual ability as a common consequence of the “loss of Dhat.” The associated symptoms were depression, hopelessness, feeling low, decreased energy levels, weakness, and lack of pleasure.

Erectile problems and premature ejaculation were also present.Rao[17] in his first epidemiological study done in Karnataka, India, showed the prevalence rate of DS in general male population as 12.5%. It was found that 57.5% were suffering either from comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric and sexual disorders was about three times higher with DS compared to non-DS subjects. One-third of the cases (32.8%) had no comorbidity in hospital (urban). One-fifth (20.5%) and 50% subjects (51.3%) had comorbid depressive disorders and sexual dysfunction.

The psychosexual symptoms were found among 113 patients who had DS. The most common psychological symptoms reported by the subjects with DS were low self-esteem (100%), loss of interest in any activity (95.60%), feeling of guilt (92.00%), and decreased social interaction (90.30%). In case of sexual disorders, beliefs were held commonly about testes becoming smaller (92.00%), thinness of semen (86.70%), decreased sexual capabilities (83.20%), and tilting of penis (70.80%).Shakya[20] studied a clinicodemographic profile of DS patients in psychiatry outpatient clinic of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

A total of 50 subjects were included in this study, and the psychiatric diagnoses as well as comorbidities were investigated as per the ICD-10 criteria. Among the subjects, most of the cases had symptoms of depression and anxiety, and all the subjects were worried about semen loss. Somehow these subjects had heard or read that semen loss or masturbation is unhealthy practice. The view of participants was that semen is very “precious,” needs preservation, and masturbation is a malpractice. Beside DS, two-thirds of the subjects had comorbid depression.In another Indian study, Chadda et al.[24] compared patients with DS with those affected with neurotic/depressive disorders.

Among 100 patients, 50%, 32%, and 18% reported depression, somatic problems, and anxiety, respectively. The authors argued that cases of DS have similar symptom dimensions as mood and anxiety disorders.Dhikav et al.[31] examined prevalence and management depression comorbid with DS. DSM-IV and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used for assessments. About 66% of the patients met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of depression. They concluded that depression was a frequent comorbidity in DS patients.In a study by Perme et al.[37] from South India that included 32 DS patients, the control group consisted of 33 people from the same clinic without DS, depression, and anxiety.

The researchers followed the guidelines of Bhatia and Malik's for the assessment of primary complaints of semen loss through “nocturnal emissions, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and passing of semen before and after urine.” The assessment was done based on several indices, namely “Somatization Screening Index, Illness Behavior Questionnaire, Somatosensory Amplification Scale, Whitley Index, and Revised Chalder Fatigue Scale.” Several complaints such as somatic complaints, hypochondriacal beliefs, and fatigue were observed to be significantly higher among patients with DS compared to the control group.A study conducted in South Hall (an industrial area in the borough of Middlesex, London) included Indian and Pakistani immigrants. Young men living separately from their wives reported promiscuity, some being infected with gonorrhea and syphilis. Like other studies, nocturnal emission, weakness, and impotency were the other reported complaints. Semen was considered to be responsible for strength and vigor by most patients. Compared to the sexual problems of Indians, the British residents complained of pelvic issues and backache.In another work, Bhatia et al.[42] undertook a study on culture-bound syndromes and reported that 76.7% of the sample had DS followed by possession syndrome and Koro (a genital-related anxiety among males in South-East Asia).

Priyadarshi and Verma[43] performed a study in Urology Department of S M S Hospital, Jaipur, India. They conducted the study among 110 male patients who complained of DS and majority of them were living alone (54.5%) or in nuclear family (30%) as compared to joint family. Furthermore, 60% of them reported of never having experienced sex.Nakra et al.[44] investigated incidence and clinical features of 150 consecutive patients who presented with potency complaints in their clinic. Clinical assessments were done apart from detailed sexual history. The patients were 15–50 years of age, educated up to mid-school and mostly from a rural background.

Most of them were married and reported premarital sexual practices, while nearly 67% of them practiced masturbation from early age. There was significant guilt associated with nocturnal emissions and masturbation. Nearly 27% of the cases reported DS-like symptoms attributing their health problems to semen loss.Behere and Nataraj[45] reported that majority of the patients with DS presented with comorbidities of physical weakness, anxiety, headache, sad mood, loss of appetite, impotence, and premature ejaculation. The authors stated that DS in India is a symptom complex commonly found in younger age groups (16–23 years). The study subjects presented with complaints of whitish discharge in urine and believed that the loss of semen through masturbation was the reason for DS and weakness.Singh et al.[46] studied 50 cases with DS and sexual problems (premature ejaculation and impotence) from Punjab, India, after exclusion of those who were psychiatrically ill.

It was assumed in the study that semen loss is considered synonymous to “loss of something precious”, hence its loss would be associated with low mood and grief. Impotency (24%), premature ejaculation (14%), and “Dhat” in urine (40%) were the common complaints observed. Patients reported variety of symptoms including anxiety, depression, appetite loss, sleep problems, bodily pains, and headache. More than half of the patients were independently diagnosed with depression, and hence, the authors argued that DS may be a manifestation of depressive disorders.Bhatia and Malik[47] reported that the most common complaints associated with DS were physical weakness, fatigue and palpitation, insomnia, sad mood, headache, guilt feeling and suicidal ideation, impotence, and premature ejaculation. Psychiatric disorders were found in 69% of the patients, out of which the most common was depression followed by anxiety, psychosis, and phobia.

About 15% of the patients were found to have premature ejaculation and 8% had impotence.Bhatia et al.[48] examined several biological variables of DS after enrolment of 40 patients in a psychosexual clinic in Delhi. Patients had a history of impotence, premature ejaculation, and loss of semen (after exclusion of substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders). Twenty years was the mean age of onset and semen loss was mainly through masturbation and sexual intercourse. 67.5% and 75% of them reported sexual disorders and psychiatric comorbidity while 25%, 12.5%, and 37.5% were recorded to suffer from ejaculatory impotence, premature ejaculation, and depression (with anxiety), respectively.Bhatia[49] conducted a study on CBS among 60 patients attending psychiatric outdoor in a teaching hospital. The study revealed that among all patients with CBSs, DS was the most common (76.7%) followed by possession syndrome (13.3%) and Koro (5%).

Hypochondriasis, sexually transmitted diseases, and depression were the associated comorbidities. Morrone et al.[50] studied 18 male patients with DS in the Dermatology department who were from Bangladesh and India. The symptoms observed were mainly fatigue and nonspecific somatic symptoms. DS patients manifested several symptoms in psychosocial, religious, somatic, and other domains. The reasons provided by the patients for semen loss were urinary loss, nocturnal emission, and masturbation.

Dhat Syndrome. The Epidemiology The typical demographic profile of a DS patient has been reported to be a less educated, young male from lower socioeconomic status and usually from rural areas. In the earlier Indian studies by Carstairs,[51],[52],[53] it was observed that majority of the cases (52%–66.7%) were from rural areas, belonged to “conservative families and posed rigid views about sex” (69%-73%). De Silva and Dissanayake[8] in their study on semen loss syndrome reported the average age of onset of DS to be 25 years with most of them from lower-middle socioeconomic class. Chadda and Ahuja[9] studied young psychiatric patients who complained of semen loss.

They were mainly manual laborers, farmers, and clerks from low socioeconomic status. More than half were married and mostly uneducated. Khan[13] studied DS patients in Pakistan and reported that majority of the patients visited Hakims (50%) and Homeopaths (24%) for treatment. The age range was wide between 12 and 65 years with an average age of 24 years. Among those studied, majority were unmarried (75%), literacy was up to matriculation and they belonged to lower socioeconomic class.

Grover et al.[15] in their study of 780 male subjects showed the average age of onset to be 28.14 years and the age ranged between 21 and 30 years (55.3%). The subjects were single or unmarried (51.0%) and married (46.7%). About 23.5% of the subjects had graduated and most were unemployed (73.5%). Majority of subjects were lower-middle class (34%) and had lower incomes. Rao[17] studied 907 subjects, in which majority were from 18 to 30 years (44.5%).

About 45.80% of the study subjects were illiterates and very few had completed postgraduation. The subjects were both married and single. Majority of the subjects were residing in nuclear family (61.30%) and only 0.30% subjects were residing alone. Most of the patients did not have comorbid addictive disorders. The subjects were mainly engaged in agriculture (43.40%).

Majority of the subjects were from lower middle and upper lower socioeconomic class.Shakya[20] had studied the sociodemographic profile of 50 patients with DS. The average age of the studied patients was 25.4 years. The age ranges in decreasing order of frequency were 16–20 years (34%) followed by 21–25 years (28%), greater than 30 years (26%), 26–30 years (10%), and 11–15 years (2%). Further, the subjects were mostly students (50%) and rest were in service (26%), farmers (14%), laborers (6%), and business (4%), respectively. Dhikav et al.[31] conducted a study on 30 patients who had attended the Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic of a tertiary care hospital with complaints of frequently passing semen in urine.

In the studied patients, the age ranged between 20 and 40 years with an average age of 29 years and average age of onset of 19 years. The average duration of illness was that of 11 months. Most of the studied patients were unmarried (64.2%) and educated till middle or high school (70%). Priyadarshi and Verma[43] performed a study in 110 male patients with DS. The average age of the patients was 23.53 years and it ranged between 15 and 68 years.

The most affected age group of patients was of 18–25 years, which comprised about 60% of patients. On the other hand, about 25% ranged between 25 and 35 years, 10% were lesser than 18 years of age, and 5.5% patients were aged >35 years. Higher percentage of the patients were unmarried (70%). Interestingly, high prevalence of DS was found in educated patients and about 50% of patients were graduate or above but most of the patients were either unemployed or student (49.1%). About 55% and 24.5% patients showed monthly family income of <10,000 and 5000 Indian Rupees (INR), respectively.

Two-third patients belonged to rural areas of residence. Behere and Nataraj[45] found majority of the patients with DS (68%) to be between 16 and 25 years age. About 52% patients were married while 48% were unmarried and from lower socioeconomic strata. The duration of DS symptoms varied widely. Singh[46] studied patients those who reported with DS, impotence, and premature ejaculation and reported the average age of the affected to be 21.8 years with a younger age of onset.

Only a few patients received higher education. Bhatia and Malik[47] as mentioned earlier reported that age at the time of onset of DS ranged from 16 to 24 years. More than half of them were single. It was observed that most patients had some territorial education (91.67%) but few (8.33%) had postgraduate education or professional training. Finally, Bhatia et al.[48] studied cases of sexual dysfunctions and reported an average age of 21.6 years among the affected, majority being unmarried (80%).

Most of those who had comorbid DS symptoms received minimal formal education. Management. A Multimodal Approach As mentioned before, individuals affected with DS often seek initial treatment with traditional healers, practitioners of alternative medicine, and local quacks. As a consequence, varied treatment strategies have been popularized. Dietary supplements, protein and iron-rich diet, Vitamin B and C-complexes, antibiotics, multivitamin injections, herbal “supplements,” etc., have all been used in the treatment though scientific evidence related to them is sparse.[33] Frequent change of doctors, irregular compliance to treatment, and high dropout from health care are the major challenges, as the attributional beliefs toward DS persist in the majority even after repeated reassurance.[54] A multidisciplinary approach (involving psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, psychiatric social workers) is recommended and close liaison with the general physicians, the Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy practitioners, dermatologists, venereologists, and neurologists often help.

The role of faith healers and local counselors is vital, and it is important to integrate them into the care of DS patients, rather than side-tracking them from the system. Community awareness needs to be increased especially in primary health care for early detection and appropriate referrals. Follow-up data show two-thirds of patients affected with DS recovering with psychoeducation and low-dose sedatives.[45] Bhatia[49] studied 60 cases of DS and reported better response to anti-anxiety and antidepressant medications compared to psychotherapy alone. Classically, the correction of attributional biases through empathy, reflective, and nonjudgmental approaches has been proposed.[38] Over the years, sex education, psychotherapy, psychoeducation, relaxation techniques, and medications have been advocated in the management of DS.[9],[55] In psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral and brief solution-focused approaches are useful to target the dysfunctional assumptions and beliefs in DS. The role of sex education is vital involving the basic understanding of sexual anatomy and physiology of sexuality.

This needs to be tailored to the local terminology and beliefs. Biofeedback has also been proposed as a treatment modality.[4] Individual stress factors that might have precipitated DS need to be addressed. A detailed outline of assessment, evaluation, and management of DS is beyond the scope of this article and has already been reported in the IPS Clinical Practice Guidelines.[56] The readers are referred to these important guidelines for a comprehensive read on management. Probably, the most important factor is to understand and resolve the sociocultural contexts in the genesis of DS in each individual. Adequate debunking of the myths related to sexuality and culturally appropriate sexual education is vital both for the prevention and treatment of DS.[56] Adequate treatment of comorbidities such as depression and anxiety often helps in reduction of symptoms, more so when the DS is considered to be a manifestation of the same.

Future of Dhat Syndrome. The Way Forward Classifications in psychiatry have always been fraught with debates and discussion such as categorical versus dimensional, biological versus evolutionary. CBS like DS forms a major area of this nosological controversy. Longitudinal stability of a diagnosis is considered to be an important part of its independent categorization. Sameer et al.[23] followed up DS patients for 6.0 ± 3.5 years and concluded that the “pure” variety of DS is not a stable diagnostic entity.

The authors rather proposed DS as a variant of somatoform disorder, with cultural explanations. The right “place” for DS in classification systems has mostly been debated and theoretically fluctuant.[14] Sridhar et al.[57] mentioned the importance of reclassifying DS from a clinically, phenomenologically, psycho-pathologically, and diagnostically valid standpoint. Although both ICD and DSM have been culturally sensitive to classification, their approach to DS has been different. While ICD-10 considers DS under “other nonpsychotic mental disorders” (F48), DSM-V mentions it only in appendix section as “cultural concepts of distress” not assigning the condition any particular number.[12],[58] Fundamental questions have actually been raised about its separate existence altogether,[35] which further puts its diagnostic position in doubt. As discussed in the earlier sections, an alternate hypothesization of DS is a cultural variant of depression, rather than a “true syndrome.”[27] Over decades, various schools of thought have considered DS either to be a global phenomenon or a cultural “idiom” of distress in specific geographical regions or a manifestation of other primary psychiatric disorders.[59] Qualitative studies in doctors have led to marked discordance in their opinion about the validity and classificatory area of DS.[60] The upcoming ICD-11 targets to pay more importance to cultural contexts for a valid and reliable classification.

However, separating the phenomenological boundaries of diseases might lead to subsetting the cultural and contextual variants in broader rubrics.[61],[62] In that way, ICD-11 might propose alternate models for distinction of CBS like DS at nosological levels.[62] It is evident that various factors include socioeconomics, acceptability, and sustainability influence global classificatory systems, and this might influence the “niche” of DS in the near future. It will be interesting to see whether it retains its diagnostic independence or gets subsumed under the broader “narrative” of depression. In any case, uniformity of diagnosing this culturally relevant yet distressing and highly prevalent condition will remain a major area related to psychiatric research and treatment. Conclusion DS is a multidimensional psychiatric “construct” which is equally interesting and controversial. Historically relevant and symptomatically mysterious, this disorder provides unique insights into cultural contexts of human behavior and the role of misattributions, beliefs, and misinformation in sexuality.

Beyond the traditional debate about its “separate” existence, the high prevalence of DS, associated comorbidities, and resultant dysfunction make it relevant for emotional and psychosexual health. It is also treatable, and hence, the detection, understanding, and awareness become vital to its management. This oration attempts a “bird's eye” view of this CBS taking into account a holistic perspective of the available evidence so far. The clinical manifestations, diagnostic and epidemiological attributes, management, and nosological controversies are highlighted to provide a comprehensive account of DS and its relevance to mental health. More systematic and mixed methods research are warranted to unravel the enigma of this controversial yet distressing psychiatric disorder.AcknowledgmentI sincerely thank Dr.

Debanjan Banerjee (Senior Resident, Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore) for his constant selfless support, rich academic discourse, and continued collaboration that helped me condense years of research and ideas into this paper.Financial support and sponsorshipNil.Conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest. References 1.2.3.Srinivasa Murthy R, Wig NN. A man ahead of his time. In. Sathyanarayana Rao TS, Tandon A, editors.

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Cultural perspectives related to international classification of diseases-11. Indian J Soc Psychiatry 2018;34 Suppl S1:1-4. Correspondence Address:T S Sathyanarayana RaoDepartment of Psychiatry, JSS Medical College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore - 570 004, Karnataka IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI.

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How to cite online pharmacy kamagra Buy propecia ireland this article:Singh OP. Mental health in diverse India. Need for advocacy online pharmacy kamagra. Indian J Psychiatry 2021;63:315-6”Unity in diversity” - That is the theme of India which we are quite proud of. We have diversity in terms of geography – online pharmacy kamagra From the Himalayas to the deserts to the seas.

Every region has its own distinct culture and food. There are so many varieties of dress and language. There is huge difference between the states in terms of development, attitude toward women, health infrastructure, child mortality, and other sociodemographic development online pharmacy kamagra indexes. There is now ample evidence that sociocultural factors influence mental health. Compton and Shim[1] have described in their model of gene environment interaction how public policies and social norms act on the distribution online pharmacy kamagra of opportunity leading to social inequality, exclusion, poor environment, discrimination, and unemployment.

This in turn leads to reduced options, poor choices, and high-risk behavior. Combining genetic vulnerability and early brain insult with low access to health care leads to poor mental health, disease, and morbidity.When we come to the field of mental health, we find huge differences online pharmacy kamagra between different states of India. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was markedly different while it was 5.8 and 5.1 for Assam and Uttar Pradesh at the lower end of the spectrum, it was 13.9 and 14.1 for Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra at the higher end of the spectrum. There was also a huge difference between the rural areas and metros, particularly in terms of psychosis and bipolar disorders.[2] The difference was distinct not only in the prevalence but also in the type of psychiatric disorders. While the online pharmacy kamagra more developed southern states had higher prevalence of adult-onset disorders such as depression and anxiety, the less developed northern states had more of childhood onset disorders.

This may be due to lead toxicity, nutritional status, and perinatal issues. Higher rates of depression and anxiety were found in females online pharmacy kamagra. Apart from the genetic and hormonal factors, increase was attributed to gender discrimination, violence, sexual abuse, and adverse sociocultural norms. Marriage was found to be a negative prognostic indicator contrary to online pharmacy kamagra the western norms.[3]Cultural influences on the presentation of psychiatric disorders are apparent. Being in recessive position in the family is one of the strongest predictors of psychiatric illnesses and psychosomatic disorders.

The presentation of depressive and anxiety disorders with more somatic symptoms results from inability to express due to unequal power equation in the family rather than the lack of expressions. Apart from culture bound syndromes, the role of cultural idioms of distress in manifestations of psychiatric symptoms is well acknowledged.When we look into suicide data, suicide in lower socioeconomic strata (annual income <1 lakh) was 92,083, in online pharmacy kamagra annual income group of 1–5 lakhs, it was 41,197, and in higher income group, it was 4726. Among those who committed suicide, 67% were young adults, 34% had family problems, 23.4% of suicides occurred in daily laborers, 10.1% in unemployed persons, and 7.4% in farmers.[4]While there are huge regional differences in mental health issues, the challenges in mental health in India remain stigma reduction, conducting research on efficacy of early intervention, reaching the unreached, gender sensitive services, making quality mental healthcare accessible and available, suicide prevention, reduction of substance abuse, implementing insurance for mental health and reducing out-of-pocket expense, and finally, improving care for homeless mentally ill. All these online pharmacy kamagra require sustained advocacy aimed at promoting rights of mentally ill persons and reducing stigma and discriminations. It consists of various actions aimed at changing the attitudinal barriers in achieving positive mental health outcomes in the general population.

Psychiatrists as Mental Health Advocates There is a debate whether psychiatrists who are overburdened with clinical care could or should be involved in the advocacy activities which require skills in other areas, and sometimes, they find themselves at the receiving end of mental health advocates. We must be involved and pathways should be to build technical evidence for mapping out the problem, cost-effective interventions, and their efficacy.Advocacy can be done at institutional level, online pharmacy kamagra organizational level, and individual level. There has been huge work done in this regard at institution level. Important research work done in this regard includes the National Mental Health Survey, National Survey on Extent and Pattern of Substance Use in India, Global Burden of online pharmacy kamagra Diseases in Indian States, and Trajectory of Brain Development. Other activities include improving the infrastructure of mental hospitals, telepsychiatry services, provision of free drugs, providing training to increase the number of service providers.

Similarly, at organizational level, the Indian Psychiatric Society online pharmacy kamagra (IPS) has filed a case for lacunae in Mental Health-care Act, 2017. Another case filed by the IPS lead to change of name of the film from “Mental Hai Kya” to “Judgemental Hai Kya.” In LGBT issue, the IPS statement was quoted in the final judgement on the decriminalization of homosexuality. The IPS has also started helplines at different levels and media interactions. The Indian Journal of Psychiatry online pharmacy kamagra has also come out with editorials highlighting the need of care of marginalized population such as migrant laborers and persons with dementia. At an individual level, we can be involved in ensuring quality treatment, respecting dignity and rights of the patient, sensitization of staff, working with patients and caregivers to plan services, and being involved locally in media and public awareness activities.The recent experience of Brazil is an eye opener where suicide reduction resulted from direct cash transfer pointing at the role of economic decision in suicide.[5] In India where economic inequality is increasing, male-to-female ratio is abysmal in some states (877 in Haryana to 1034 in Kerala), our actions should be sensitive to this regional variation.

When the enemy is economic inequality, our weapon is research highlighting the online pharmacy kamagra role of these factors on mental health. References 1.Compton MT, Shim RS. The social online pharmacy kamagra determinants of mental health. Focus 2015;13:419-25. 2.Gururaj G, Varghese M, Benegal V, Rao GN, Pathak K, Singh LK, et al.

National Mental Health Survey of India, 2015-16 online pharmacy kamagra. Prevalence, Patterns and Outcomes. Bengaluru. National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, NIMHANS Publication No. 129.

2016. 3.Sagar R, Dandona R, Gururaj G, Dhaliwal RS, Singh A, Ferrari A, et al. The burden of mental disorders across the states of India. The Global Burden of Disease Study 1990–2017. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7:148-61.

4.National Crime Records Bureau, 2019. Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India. 2019. Available from. Https://ncrb.gov.in.

[Last accessed on 2021 Jun 24]. 5.Machado DB, Rasella D, dos Santos DN. Impact of income inequality and other social determinants on suicide rate in Brazil. PLoS One 2015;10:e0124934. Correspondence Address:Om Prakash SinghDepartment of Psychiatry, WBMES, Kolkata, West Bengal.

AMRI Hospitals, Kolkata, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_635_21Abstract Sexual health, an essential component of individual's health, is influenced by many complex issues including sexual behavior, attitudes, societal, and cultural factors on the one hand and while on the other hand, biological aspects, genetic predisposition, and associated mental and physical illnesses. Sexual health is a neglected area, even though it influences mortality, morbidity, and disability.

Dhat syndrome (DS), the term coined by Dr. N. N. Wig, has been at the forefront of advancements in understanding and misunderstanding. The concept of DS is still evolving being treated as a culture-bound syndrome in the past to a syndrome of depression and treated as “a culturally determined idiom of distress.” It is bound with myths, fallacies, prejudices, secrecy, exaggeration, and value-laden judgments.

Although it has been reported from many countries, much of the literature has emanated from Asia, that too mainly from India. The research in India has ranged from the study of a few cases in the past to recent national multicentric studies concerning phenomenology and beliefs of patients. The epidemiological studies have ranged from being hospital-based to population-based studies in rural and urban settings. There are studies on the management of individual cases by resolving sexual myths, relaxation exercises, supportive psychotherapy, anxiolytics, and antidepressants to broader and deeper research concerning cognitive behavior therapy. The presentation looks into DS as a model case highlighting the importance of exploring sexual health concerns in the Indian population in general and in particular need to reconsider DS in the light of the newly available literature.

It makes a fervent appeal for the inclusion of DS in the mainstream diagnostic categories in the upcoming revisions of the diagnostic manuals which can pave the way for a better understanding and management of DS and sexual problems.Keywords. Culture-bound syndrome, Dhat syndrome, Dhat syndrome management, Dhat syndrome prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity, sexual disordersHow to cite this article:Sathyanarayana Rao T S. History and mystery of Dhat syndrome. A critical look at the current understanding and future directions. Indian J Psychiatry 2021;63:317-25 Introduction Mr.

President, Chairpersons, my respected teachers and seniors, my professional colleagues and friends, ladies and gentlemen:I deem it a proud privilege and pleasure to receive and to deliver DLN Murti Rao Oration Award for 2020. I am humbled at this great honor and remain grateful to the Indian Psychiatric Society (IPS) in general and the awards committee in particular. I would like to begin my presentation with my homage to Professor DLN Murti Rao, who was a Doyen of Psychiatry.[1] I have a special connection to the name as Dr. Doddaballapura Laxmi Narasimha Murti Rao, apart from a family name, obtained his medical degree from Mysore Medical College, Mysuru, India, the same city where I have served last 33 years in JSS Medical College and JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research. His name carries the reverence in the corridors of the current National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) at Bangalore which was All India Institute of Mental Health, when he served as Head and the Medical Superintendent.

Another coincidence was his untimely demise in 1962, the same year another Doyen Dr. Wig[2],[3] published the article on a common but peculiar syndrome in the Indian context and gave the name Dhat syndrome (DS). Even though Dr. Wig is no more, his legacy of profound contribution to psychiatry and psychiatric education in general and service to the society and Mental Health, in particular, is well documented. His keen observation and study culminated in synthesizing many aspects and developments in DS.I would also like to place on record my humble pranams to my teachers from Christian Medical College, Vellore – Dr.

Abraham Varghese, the first Editor of the Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine and Dr. K. Kuruvilla, Past Editor of Indian Journal of Psychiatry whose legacies I carried forward for both the journals. I must place on record that my journey in the field of Sexual Medicine was sown by Dr. K.

Kuruvilla and subsequent influence of Dr. Ajit Avasthi from Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research from Chandigarh as my role model in the field. There are many more who have shaped and nurtured my interest in the field of sex and sexuality.The term “Dhat” was taken from the Sanskrit language, which is an important word “Dhatu” and has known several meanings such as “metal,” a “medicinal constituent,” which can be considered as most powerful material within the human body.[4] The Dhat disorder is mainly known for “loss of semen”, and the DS is a well-known “culture-bound syndrome (CBS).”[4] The DS leads to several psychosexual disorders such as physical weakness, tiredness, anxiety, appetite loss, and guilt related to the loss of semen through nocturnal emission, in urine and by masturbation as mentioned in many studies.[4],[5],[6] Conventionally, Charaka Samhita mentions “waste of bodily humors” being linked to the “loss of Dhatus.”[5] Semen has even been mentioned by Aristotle as a “soul substance” and weakness associated with its loss.[6] This has led to a plethora of beliefs about “food-blood-semen” relationship where the loss of semen is considered to reduce vitality, potency, and psychophysiological strength. People have variously attributed DS to excessive masturbation, premarital sex, promiscuity, and nocturnal emissions. Several past studies have emphasized that CBS leads to “anxiety for loss of semen” is not only prevalent in the Indian subcontinent but also a global phenomenon.[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20]It is important to note that DS manifestation and the psychosexual features are based on the impact of culture, demographic profiles, and the socioeconomic status of the patients.[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20] According to Leff,[21] culture depends upon norms, values, and myths, based on a specific area, and is also shared by the indigenous individuals of that area.

Tiwari et al.[22] mentioned in their study that “culture is closely associated with mental disorders through social and psychological activities.” With this background, the paper attempts to highlight the multidimensional construct of DS for a better clinical understanding in routine practice. Dhat Syndrome. A Separate Entity or a “Cultural Variant” of Depression Even though DS has been studied for years now, a consensus on the definition is yet to be achieved. It has mostly been conceptualized as a multidimensional psychosomatic entity consisting of anxiety, depressive, somatic, and sexual phenomenology. Most importantly, abnormal and erroneous attributions are considered to be responsible for the genesis of DS.

The most important debate is, however, related to the nosological status of DS. Although considered to a CBS unique to India, it has also been increasingly reported in China, Europe, Japan, Malaysia, Russia, and America.[11] The consistency and validity of its diagnosis have been consistently debated, and one of the most vital questions that emerged was. Can there be another way to conceptualize DS?. There is no single answer to that question. Apart from an independent entity, the diagnostic validity of which has been limited in longitudinal studies,[23] it has also been a cultural variant of depressive and somatization disorders.

Mumford[11] in his study of Asian patients with DS found a significant association with depressed mood, anxiety, and fatigue. Around the same time, another study by Chadha[24] reported comorbidities in DS at a rate of 50%, 32%, and 18% related to depression, somatoform disorders, and anxiety, respectively. Depression continued to be reported as the most common association of DS in many studies.[25],[26] This “cause-effect” dilemma can never be fully resolved. Whether “loss of semen” and the cultural attributions to it leads to the affective symptoms or whether low mood and neuroticism can lead to DS in appropriate cultural context are two sides of the argument. However, the cognitive biases resulting in the attributional errors of DS and the subsequently maintained attitudes with relation to sexuality can be explained by the depressive cognitions and concepts of learned helplessness.

Balhara[27] has argued that since DS is not really culture specific as thought of earlier, it should not be solely categorized as a functional somatic syndrome, as that can have detrimental effects on its understanding and management. He also mentions that the underlying “emotional distress and cultural contexts” are not unique to DS but can be related to any psychiatric syndrome for that matter. On the contrary, other researchers have warned that subsuming DS and other CBS under the broader rubric of “mood disorders” can lead to neglect and reductionism in disorder like DS that can have unique cultural connotations.[28] Over the years, there have been multiple propositions to relook and relabel CBS like DS. Considering it as a variant of depression or somatization can make it a “cultural phenotype” of these disorders in certain regions, thus making it easier for the classificatory systems. This dichotomous debate seems never-ending, but clinically, it is always better to err on over-diagnosing and over-treating depression and anxiety in DS, which can improve the well-being of the distressed patients.

Why Discuss Dhat Syndrome. Implications in Clinical Practice DS might occur independently or associated with multiple comorbidities. It has been a widely recognized clinical condition in various parts of the world, though considered specific to the Indian subcontinent. The presentation can often be polymorphic with symptom clusters of affective, somatic, behavioral, and cognitive manifestations.[29] Being common in rural areas, the first contacts of the patients are frequently traditional faith healers and less often, the general practitioners. A psychiatric referral occurs much later, if at all.

This leads to underdetection and faulty treatments, which can strengthen the already existing misattributions and misinformation responsible for maintaining the disorder. Furthermore, depression and sexual dysfunction can be the important comorbidities that if untreated, lead to significant psychosocial dysfunction and impaired quality of life.[30] Besides many patients of DS believe that their symptoms are due to failure of interpersonal relationships, s, and heredity, which might cause early death and infertility. This contributes to the vicious cycle of fear and panic.[31] Doctor shopping is another challenge and failure to detect and address the concern of DS might lead to dropping out from the care.[15] Rao[17] in their epidemiological study reported 12.5% prevalence in the general population, with 20.5% and 50% suffering from comorbid depression and sexual disorders. The authors stressed upon the importance of early detection of DS for the psychosexual and social well-being. Most importantly, the multidimensional presentation of DS can at certain times be a facade overshadowing underlying neurotic disorders (anxiety, depression, somatoform, hypochondriasis, and phobias), obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders and body dysmorphic disorders, delusional disorders, sexual disorders (premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction) and infectious disorders (urinary tract s, sexually transmitted diseases), and even stress-related manifestations in otherwise healthy individuals.[4],[14],[15] This significant overlap of symptomatology, increased prevalence, and marked comorbidity make it all the more important for physicians to make sense out of the construct of DS.

That can facilitate prompt detection and management of DS in routine clinical practice.In an earlier review study, it was observed that few studies are undertaken to update the research works from published articles as an updated review, systemic review, world literature review, etc., on DS and its management approach.[29],[32],[33],[34],[35] The present paper attempts to compile the evidence till date on DS related to its nosology, critique, manifestations, and management plan. The various empirical studies on DS all over the world will be briefly discussed along with the implications and importance of the syndrome. The Construct of Dhat Syndrome. Summary of Current Evidence DS is a well-known CBS, which is defined as undue concern about the weakening effects after the passage of semen in urine or through nocturnal emission that has been stated by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10).[36] It is also known as “semen loss syndrome” by Shakya,[20] which is prevalent mainly in the Indian subcontinent[37] and has also been reported in the South-Eastern and western population.[15],[16],[20],[32],[38],[39],[40],[41] Individuals with “semen loss anxiety” suffer from a myriad of psychosexual symptoms, which have been attributed to “loss of vital essence through semen” (common in South Asia).[7],[15],[16],[17],[32],[37],[41],[42],[43] The various studies related to attributes of DS and their findings are summarized further.Prakash et al.[5] studied 100 DS patients through 139 symptoms of the Associated Symptoms Scale. They studied sociodemographic profile, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Postgraduate Institute Neuroticism Scale.

The study found a wide range of physical, anxiety, depression, sexual, and cognitive symptoms. Most commonly associated symptoms were found as per score ≥1. This study reported several parameters such as the “sense of being unhealthy” (99%), worry (99%), feeling “no improvement despite treatment” (97%), tension (97%), tiredness (95%), fatigue (95%), weakness (95%), and anxiety (95%). The common sexual disorders were observed as loss of masculinity (83%), erectile dysfunction (54%), and premature ejaculation (53%). Majority of patients had faced mild or moderate level of symptoms in which 47% of the patients reported severe weakness.

Overall distress and dysfunction were observed as 64% and 81% in the studied subjects, respectively.A study in Taiwan involved 87 participants from a Urology clinic. Most of them have sexual neurosis (Shen-K'uei syndrome).[7] More than one-third of the patients belonged to lower social class and symptoms of depression, somatization, anxiety, masturbation, and nocturnal emissions. Other bodily complaints as reported were sleep disturbances, fatigue, dizziness, backache, and weakness. Nearly 80% of them considered that all of their problems were due to masturbatory practices.De Silva and Dissanayake[8] investigated several manifestations on semen loss syndrome in the psychiatric clinic of Colombo General Hospital, Sri Lanka. Beliefs regarding effects of semen loss and help-seeking sought for DS were explored.

38 patients were studied after psychiatrically ill individuals and those with organic disorders were excluded. Duration of semen loss varied from 1 to 20 years. Every participant reported excessive loss of semen and was preoccupied with it. The common forms of semen loss were through nocturnal emission, masturbation, urinary loss, and through sexual activities. Most of them reported multiple modes of semen loss.

Masturbatory frequency and that of nocturnal emissions varied significantly. More than half of the patients reported all types of complaints (psychological, sexual, somatic, and genital).In the study by Chadda and Ahuja,[9] 52 psychiatric patients (mostly adolescents and young adults) complained of passing “Dhat” in urine. They were assessed for a period of 6 months. More than 80% of them complained of body weakness, aches, and pains. More than 50% of the patients suffered from depression and anxiety.

All the participants felt that their symptoms were due to loss of “dhat” in urine, attributed to excessive masturbation, extramarital and premarital sex. Half of those who faced sexual dysfunctions attributed them to semen loss.Mumford[11] proposed a controversial explanation of DS arguing that it might be a part of other psychiatric disorders, like depression. A total of 1000 literate patients were recruited from a medical outdoor in a public sector hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. About 600 educated patients were included as per Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI). Men with DS reported greater symptoms on BSI than those without DS.

60 psychiatric patients were also recruited from the same hospital and diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III-R. Among them, 33% of the patients qualified for “Dhat” items on BSI. The symptoms persisted for more than 15 days. It was observed that symptoms of DS highly correlated with BSI items, namely erectile dysfunction, burning sensation during urination, fatigue, energy loss, and weakness. This comparative study indicated that patients with DS suffered more from depressive disorders than without DS and the age group affected by DS was mostly the young.Grover et al.[15] conducted a study on 780 male patients aged >16 years in five centers (Chandigarh, Jaipur, Faridkot, Mewat, and New Delhi) of Northern India, 4 centers (2 from Kolkata, 1 each in Kalyani and Bhubaneswar) of Eastern India, 2 centers (Agra and Lucknow) of Central India, 2 centers (Ahmedabad and Wardha) of Western India, and 2 centers of Southern India (both located at Mysore) spread across the country by using DS questionnaire.

Nearly one-third of the patients were passing “Dhat” multiple times a week. Among them, nearly 60% passed almost a spoonful of “Dhat” each time during a loss. This work on sexual disorders reported that the passage of “Dhat” was mostly attributed to masturbation (55.1%), dreams on sex (47.3%), sexual desire (42.8%), and high energy foods consumption (36.7%). Mostly, the participants experienced passage of Dhat as “night falls” (60.1%) and “while passing stools” (59.5%). About 75.6% showed weakness in sexual ability as a common consequence of the “loss of Dhat.” The associated symptoms were depression, hopelessness, feeling low, decreased energy levels, weakness, and lack of pleasure.

Erectile problems and premature ejaculation were also present.Rao[17] in his first epidemiological study done in Karnataka, India, showed the prevalence rate of DS in general male population as 12.5%. It was found that 57.5% were suffering either from comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric and sexual disorders was about three times higher with DS compared to non-DS subjects. One-third of the cases (32.8%) had no comorbidity in hospital (urban). One-fifth (20.5%) and 50% subjects (51.3%) had comorbid depressive disorders and sexual dysfunction.

The psychosexual symptoms were found among 113 patients who had DS. The most common psychological symptoms reported by the subjects with DS were low self-esteem (100%), loss of interest in any activity (95.60%), feeling of guilt (92.00%), and decreased social interaction (90.30%). In case of sexual disorders, beliefs were held commonly about testes becoming smaller (92.00%), thinness of semen (86.70%), decreased sexual capabilities (83.20%), and tilting of penis (70.80%).Shakya[20] studied a clinicodemographic profile of DS patients in psychiatry outpatient clinic of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal.

A total of 50 subjects were included in this study, and the psychiatric diagnoses as well as comorbidities were investigated as per the ICD-10 criteria. Among the subjects, most of the cases had symptoms of depression and anxiety, and all the subjects were worried about semen loss. Somehow these subjects had heard or read that semen loss or masturbation is unhealthy practice. The view of participants was that semen is very “precious,” needs preservation, and masturbation is a malpractice. Beside DS, two-thirds of the subjects had comorbid depression.In another Indian study, Chadda et al.[24] compared patients with DS with those affected with neurotic/depressive disorders.

Among 100 patients, 50%, 32%, and 18% reported depression, somatic problems, and anxiety, respectively. The authors argued that cases of DS have similar symptom dimensions as mood and anxiety disorders.Dhikav et al.[31] examined prevalence and management depression comorbid with DS. DSM-IV and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used for assessments. About 66% of the patients met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of depression. They concluded that depression was a frequent comorbidity in DS patients.In a study by Perme et al.[37] from South India that included 32 DS patients, the control group consisted of 33 people from the same clinic without DS, depression, and anxiety.

The researchers followed the guidelines of Bhatia and Malik's for the assessment of primary complaints of semen loss through “nocturnal emissions, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and passing of semen before and after urine.” The assessment was done based on several indices, namely “Somatization Screening Index, Illness Behavior Questionnaire, Somatosensory Amplification Scale, Whitley Index, and Revised Chalder Fatigue Scale.” Several complaints such as somatic complaints, hypochondriacal beliefs, and fatigue were observed to be significantly higher among patients with DS compared to the control group.A study conducted in South Hall (an industrial area in the borough of Middlesex, London) included Indian and Pakistani immigrants. Young men living separately from their wives reported promiscuity, some being infected with gonorrhea and syphilis. Like other studies, nocturnal emission, weakness, and impotency were the other reported complaints. Semen was considered to be responsible for strength and vigor by most patients. Compared to the sexual problems of Indians, the British residents complained of pelvic issues and backache.In another work, Bhatia et al.[42] undertook a study on culture-bound syndromes and reported that 76.7% of the sample had DS followed by possession syndrome and Koro (a genital-related anxiety among males in South-East Asia).

Priyadarshi and Verma[43] performed a study in Urology Department of S M S Hospital, Jaipur, India. They conducted the study among 110 male patients who complained of DS and majority of them were living alone (54.5%) or in nuclear family (30%) as compared to joint family. Furthermore, 60% of them reported of never having experienced sex.Nakra et al.[44] investigated incidence and clinical features of 150 consecutive patients who presented with potency complaints in their clinic. Clinical assessments were done apart from detailed sexual history. The patients were 15–50 years of age, educated up to mid-school and mostly from a rural background.

Most of them were married and reported premarital sexual practices, while nearly 67% of them practiced masturbation from early age. There was significant guilt associated with nocturnal emissions and masturbation. Nearly 27% of the cases reported DS-like symptoms attributing their health problems to semen loss.Behere and Nataraj[45] reported that majority of the patients with DS presented with comorbidities of physical weakness, anxiety, headache, sad mood, loss of appetite, impotence, and premature ejaculation. The authors stated that DS in India is a symptom complex commonly found in younger age groups (16–23 years). The study subjects presented with complaints of whitish discharge in urine and believed that the loss of semen through masturbation was the reason for DS and weakness.Singh et al.[46] studied 50 cases with DS and sexual problems (premature ejaculation and impotence) from Punjab, India, after exclusion of those who were psychiatrically ill.

It was assumed in the study that semen loss is considered synonymous to “loss of something precious”, hence its loss would be associated with low mood and grief. Impotency (24%), premature ejaculation (14%), and “Dhat” in urine (40%) were the common complaints observed. Patients reported variety of symptoms including anxiety, depression, appetite loss, sleep problems, bodily pains, and headache. More than half of the patients were independently diagnosed with depression, and hence, the authors argued that DS may be a manifestation of depressive disorders.Bhatia and Malik[47] reported that the most common complaints associated with DS were physical weakness, fatigue and palpitation, insomnia, sad mood, headache, guilt feeling and suicidal ideation, impotence, and premature ejaculation. Psychiatric disorders were found in 69% of the patients, out of which the most common was depression followed by anxiety, psychosis, and phobia.

About 15% of the patients were found to have premature ejaculation and 8% had impotence.Bhatia et al.[48] examined several biological variables of DS after enrolment of 40 patients in a psychosexual clinic in Delhi. Patients had a history of impotence, premature ejaculation, and loss of semen (after exclusion of substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders). Twenty years was the mean age of onset and semen loss was mainly through masturbation and sexual intercourse. 67.5% and 75% of them reported sexual disorders and psychiatric comorbidity while 25%, 12.5%, and 37.5% were recorded to suffer from ejaculatory impotence, premature ejaculation, and depression (with anxiety), respectively.Bhatia[49] conducted a study on CBS among 60 patients attending psychiatric outdoor in a teaching hospital. The study revealed that among all patients with CBSs, DS was the most common (76.7%) followed by possession syndrome (13.3%) and Koro (5%).

Hypochondriasis, sexually transmitted diseases, and depression were the associated comorbidities. Morrone et al.[50] studied 18 male patients with DS in the Dermatology department who were from Bangladesh and India. The symptoms observed were mainly fatigue and nonspecific somatic symptoms. DS patients manifested several symptoms in psychosocial, religious, somatic, and other domains. The reasons provided by the patients for semen loss were urinary loss, nocturnal emission, and masturbation.

Dhat Syndrome. The Epidemiology The typical demographic profile of a DS patient has been reported to be a less educated, young male from lower socioeconomic status and usually from rural areas. In the earlier Indian studies by Carstairs,[51],[52],[53] it was observed that majority of the cases (52%–66.7%) were from rural areas, belonged to “conservative families and posed rigid views about sex” (69%-73%). De Silva and Dissanayake[8] in their study on semen loss syndrome reported the average age of onset of DS to be 25 years with most of them from lower-middle socioeconomic class. Chadda and Ahuja[9] studied young psychiatric patients who complained of semen loss.

They were mainly manual laborers, farmers, and clerks from low socioeconomic status. More than half were married and mostly uneducated. Khan[13] studied DS patients in Pakistan and reported that majority of the patients visited Hakims (50%) and Homeopaths (24%) for treatment. The age range was wide between 12 and 65 years with an average age of 24 years. Among those studied, majority were unmarried (75%), literacy was up to matriculation and they belonged to lower socioeconomic class.

Grover et al.[15] in their study of 780 male subjects showed the average age of onset to be 28.14 years and the age ranged between 21 and 30 years (55.3%). The subjects were single or unmarried (51.0%) and married (46.7%). About 23.5% of the subjects had graduated and most were unemployed (73.5%). Majority of subjects were lower-middle class (34%) and had lower incomes. Rao[17] studied 907 subjects, in which majority were from 18 to 30 years (44.5%).

About 45.80% of the study subjects were illiterates and very few had completed postgraduation. The subjects were both married and single. Majority of the subjects were residing in nuclear family (61.30%) and only 0.30% subjects were residing alone. Most of the patients did not have comorbid addictive disorders. The subjects were mainly engaged in agriculture (43.40%).

Majority of the subjects were from lower middle and upper lower socioeconomic class.Shakya[20] had studied the sociodemographic profile of 50 patients with DS. The average age of the studied patients was 25.4 years. The age ranges in decreasing order of frequency were 16–20 years (34%) followed by 21–25 years (28%), greater than 30 years (26%), 26–30 years (10%), and 11–15 years (2%). Further, the subjects were mostly students (50%) and rest were in service (26%), farmers (14%), laborers (6%), and business (4%), respectively. Dhikav et al.[31] conducted a study on 30 patients who had attended the Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic of a tertiary care hospital with complaints of frequently passing semen in urine.

In the studied patients, the age ranged between 20 and 40 years with an average age of 29 years and average age of onset of 19 years. The average duration of illness was that of 11 months. Most of the studied patients were unmarried (64.2%) and educated till middle or high school (70%). Priyadarshi and Verma[43] performed a study in 110 male patients with DS. The average age of the patients was 23.53 years and it ranged between 15 and 68 years.

The most affected age group of patients was of 18–25 years, which comprised about 60% of patients. On the other hand, about 25% ranged between 25 and 35 years, 10% were lesser than 18 years of age, and 5.5% patients were aged >35 years. Higher percentage of the patients were unmarried (70%). Interestingly, high prevalence of DS was found in educated patients and about 50% of patients were graduate or above but most of the patients were either unemployed or student (49.1%). About 55% and 24.5% patients showed monthly family income of <10,000 and 5000 Indian Rupees (INR), respectively.

Two-third patients belonged to rural areas of residence. Behere and Nataraj[45] found majority of the patients with DS (68%) to be between 16 and 25 years age. About 52% patients were married while 48% were unmarried and from lower socioeconomic strata. The duration of DS symptoms varied widely. Singh[46] studied patients those who reported with DS, impotence, and premature ejaculation and reported the average age of the affected to be 21.8 years with a younger age of onset.

Only a few patients received higher education. Bhatia and Malik[47] as mentioned earlier reported that age at the time of onset of DS ranged from 16 to 24 years. More than half of them were single. It was observed that most patients had some territorial education (91.67%) but few (8.33%) had postgraduate education or professional training. Finally, Bhatia et al.[48] studied cases of sexual dysfunctions and reported an average age of 21.6 years among the affected, majority being unmarried (80%).

Most of those who had comorbid DS symptoms received minimal formal education. Management. A Multimodal Approach As mentioned before, individuals affected with DS often seek initial treatment with traditional healers, practitioners of alternative medicine, and local quacks. As a consequence, varied treatment strategies have been popularized. Dietary supplements, protein and iron-rich diet, Vitamin B and C-complexes, antibiotics, multivitamin injections, herbal “supplements,” etc., have all been used in the treatment though scientific evidence related to them is sparse.[33] Frequent change of doctors, irregular compliance to treatment, and high dropout from health care are the major challenges, as the attributional beliefs toward DS persist in the majority even after repeated reassurance.[54] A multidisciplinary approach (involving psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, psychiatric social workers) is recommended and close liaison with the general physicians, the Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy practitioners, dermatologists, venereologists, and neurologists often help.

The role of faith healers and local counselors is vital, and it is important to integrate them into the care of DS patients, rather than side-tracking them from the system. Community awareness needs to be increased especially in primary health care for early detection and appropriate referrals. Follow-up data show two-thirds of patients affected with DS recovering with psychoeducation and low-dose sedatives.[45] Bhatia[49] studied 60 cases of DS and reported better response to anti-anxiety and antidepressant medications compared to psychotherapy alone. Classically, the correction of attributional biases through empathy, reflective, and nonjudgmental approaches has been proposed.[38] Over the years, sex education, psychotherapy, psychoeducation, relaxation techniques, and medications have been advocated in the management of DS.[9],[55] In psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral and brief solution-focused approaches are useful to target the dysfunctional assumptions and beliefs in DS. The role of sex education is vital involving the basic understanding of sexual anatomy and physiology of sexuality.

This needs to be tailored to the local terminology and beliefs. Biofeedback has also been proposed as a treatment modality.[4] Individual stress factors that might have precipitated DS need to be addressed. A detailed outline of assessment, evaluation, and management of DS is beyond the scope of this article and has already been reported in the IPS Clinical Practice Guidelines.[56] The readers are referred to these important guidelines for a comprehensive read on management. Probably, the most important factor is to understand and resolve the sociocultural contexts in the genesis of DS in each individual. Adequate debunking of the myths related to sexuality and culturally appropriate sexual education is vital both for the prevention and treatment of DS.[56] Adequate treatment of comorbidities such as depression and anxiety often helps in reduction of symptoms, more so when the DS is considered to be a manifestation of the same.

Future of Dhat Syndrome. The Way Forward Classifications in psychiatry have always been fraught with debates and discussion such as categorical versus dimensional, biological versus evolutionary. CBS like DS forms a major area of this nosological controversy. Longitudinal stability of a diagnosis is considered to be an important part of its independent categorization. Sameer et al.[23] followed up DS patients for 6.0 ± 3.5 years and concluded that the “pure” variety of DS is not a stable diagnostic entity.

The authors rather proposed DS as a variant of somatoform disorder, with cultural explanations. The right “place” for DS in classification systems has mostly been debated and theoretically fluctuant.[14] Sridhar et al.[57] mentioned the importance of reclassifying DS from a clinically, phenomenologically, psycho-pathologically, and diagnostically valid standpoint. Although both ICD and DSM have been culturally sensitive to classification, their approach to DS has been different. While ICD-10 considers DS under “other nonpsychotic mental disorders” (F48), DSM-V mentions it only in appendix section as “cultural concepts of distress” not assigning the condition any particular number.[12],[58] Fundamental questions have actually been raised about its separate existence altogether,[35] which further puts its diagnostic position in doubt. As discussed in the earlier sections, an alternate hypothesization of DS is a cultural variant of depression, rather than a “true syndrome.”[27] Over decades, various schools of thought have considered DS either to be a global phenomenon or a cultural “idiom” of distress in specific geographical regions or a manifestation of other primary psychiatric disorders.[59] Qualitative studies in doctors have led to marked discordance in their opinion about the validity and classificatory area of DS.[60] The upcoming ICD-11 targets to pay more importance to cultural contexts for a valid and reliable classification.

However, separating the phenomenological boundaries of diseases might lead to subsetting the cultural and contextual variants in broader rubrics.[61],[62] In that way, ICD-11 might propose alternate models for distinction of CBS like DS at nosological levels.[62] It is evident that various factors include socioeconomics, acceptability, and sustainability influence global classificatory systems, and this might influence the “niche” of DS in the near future. It will be interesting to see whether it retains its diagnostic independence or gets subsumed under the broader “narrative” of depression. In any case, uniformity of diagnosing this culturally relevant yet distressing and highly prevalent condition will remain a major area related to psychiatric research and treatment. Conclusion DS is a multidimensional psychiatric “construct” which is equally interesting and controversial. Historically relevant and symptomatically mysterious, this disorder provides unique insights into cultural contexts of human behavior and the role of misattributions, beliefs, and misinformation in sexuality.

Beyond the traditional debate about its “separate” existence, the high prevalence of DS, associated comorbidities, and resultant dysfunction make it relevant for emotional and psychosexual health. It is also treatable, and hence, the detection, understanding, and awareness become vital to its management. This oration attempts a “bird's eye” view of this CBS taking into account a holistic perspective of the available evidence so far. The clinical manifestations, diagnostic and epidemiological attributes, management, and nosological controversies are highlighted to provide a comprehensive account of DS and its relevance to mental health. More systematic and mixed methods research are warranted to unravel the enigma of this controversial yet distressing psychiatric disorder.AcknowledgmentI sincerely thank Dr.

Debanjan Banerjee (Senior Resident, Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore) for his constant selfless support, rich academic discourse, and continued collaboration that helped me condense years of research and ideas into this paper.Financial support and sponsorshipNil.Conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest. References 1.2.3.Srinivasa Murthy R, Wig NN. A man ahead of his time. In. Sathyanarayana Rao TS, Tandon A, editors.

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56.Avasthi A, Grover S, Rao TS. Clinical practice guidelines for management of sexual dysfunction. Indian J Psychiatry 2017;59 Suppl 1:S91-115. 57.Kavanoor Sridhar V, Subramanian K, Menon V. Current nosology of Dhat syndrome and state of evidence.

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Culture bound, separate entity, or removed. J Behav Health 2017;6:147-50. 60.Prakash S, Sharan P, Sood M. A qualitative study on psychopathology of dhat syndrome in men. Implications for classification of disorders.

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Cultural perspectives related to international classification of diseases-11. Indian J Soc Psychiatry 2018;34 Suppl S1:1-4. Correspondence Address:T S Sathyanarayana RaoDepartment of Psychiatry, JSS Medical College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore - 570 004, Karnataka IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI.

10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_791_20.

Kamagra viagra jelly reviews

To the hop over to this web-site Editor kamagra viagra jelly reviews. Figure 1 kamagra viagra jelly reviews. Figure 1. erectile dysfunction Variants among kamagra viagra jelly reviews Symptomatic Health Workers.

Shown is the distribution of the B.1.1.7 (alpha), delta, and other erectile dysfunction variants according to vaccination status and month of diagnosis among health workers at University of California San Diego Health, March through July 2021. The number of kamagra viagra jelly reviews workers indicates those who were symptomatic and had available variant data, and the number of positive tests indicates those that included data on variants. In December 2020, the University of California San Diego Health (UCSDH) workforce experienced a dramatic increase in severe acute respiratory syndrome erectile dysfunction 2 (erectile dysfunction) s. Vaccination with mRNA treatments kamagra viagra jelly reviews began in mid-December 2020.

By March, 76% of the workforce had been fully vaccinated, and by July, the percentage had risen to 87%. s had decreased dramatically by early February 2021.1 Between March and June, fewer than 30 health care workers tested positive each month kamagra viagra jelly reviews. However, coincident with the end of California’s mask mandate on June 15 and the rapid dominance of the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant that first emerged in mid-April and accounted for over 95% of UCSDH isolates by the end of July (Figure 1), s increased rapidly, including cases among fully vaccinated persons. Institutional review board approval was obtained for use of administrative data kamagra viagra jelly reviews on vaccinations and case-investigation data to examine mRNA SARS CoV-2 treatment effectiveness.

UCSDH has a low threshold for erectile dysfunction testing, which is triggered by the presence of at least one symptom during daily screening or by an identified exposure, regardless of vaccination status. From March 1 kamagra viagra jelly reviews to July 31, 2021, a total of 227 UCSDH health care workers tested positive for erectile dysfunction by reverse-transcriptase–quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-qPCR) assay of nasal swabs. 130 of the 227 workers (57.3%) were fully vaccinated kamagra viagra jelly reviews. Symptoms were present in 109 of the 130 fully vaccinated workers (83.8%) and in 80 of the 90 unvaccinated workers (88.9%).

(The remaining 7 workers were only partially vaccinated.) No deaths were reported kamagra viagra jelly reviews in either group. One unvaccinated person was hospitalized for erectile dysfunction–related symptoms. Table 1 kamagra viagra jelly reviews. Table 1.

Symptomatic erectile dysfunction and mRNA treatment Effectiveness among UCSDH kamagra viagra jelly reviews Health Workers, March through July 2021. treatment effectiveness was calculated for each month from March through July. The case definition was a positive kamagra viagra jelly reviews PCR test and one or more symptoms among persons with no previous erectile dysfunction treatment (see the Supplementary Appendix). treatment effectiveness exceeded 90% from March through June but fell to 65.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48.9 to 76.9) in July (Table 1).

July case rates were analyzed according to the month in which workers with erectile dysfunction treatment completed the vaccination kamagra viagra jelly reviews series. In workers completing vaccination in January or February, the attack rate was 6.7 per 1000 persons (95% CI, 5.9 to 7.8), whereas the attack rate was 3.7 per 1000 persons (95% CI, 2.5 to 5.7) among those who completed vaccination during the period from March through May. Among unvaccinated persons, the July attack rate was 16.4 kamagra viagra jelly reviews per 1000 persons (95% CI, 11.8 to 22.9). The SARS CoV-2 mRNA treatments, BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna), have previously shown efficacy rates of 95% and 94.1%,2 respectively, in their initial clinical trials, and for the BNT162b2 treatment, sustained, albeit slightly decreased effectiveness (84%) 4 kamagra viagra jelly reviews months after the second dose.3 In England, where an extended dosing interval of up to 12 weeks was used, Lopez Bernal et al.

Reported a preserved treatment effectiveness of 88% against symptomatic disease associated with the delta variant.4 As observed by others in populations that received mRNA treatments according to standard Emergency Use Authorization intervals,5 our data suggest that treatment effectiveness against any symptomatic disease is considerably lower against the delta variant and may wane over time since vaccination. The dramatic change in treatment effectiveness from June to July is likely to be due to both the emergence of the delta variant and waning immunity over time, compounded by the end of masking requirements in California and the resulting greater risk of exposure in the kamagra viagra jelly reviews community. Our findings underline the importance of rapidly reinstating nonpharmaceutical interventions, such as indoor masking and intensive testing strategies, in addition to continued efforts to increase vaccinations, as strategies to prevent avoidable illness and deaths and to avoid mass disruptions to society during the spread of this formidable variant. Furthermore, if our findings on waning immunity are verified in other kamagra viagra jelly reviews settings, booster doses may be indicated.

Jocelyn Keehner, M.D.Lucy E. Horton, M.D., M.P.H.UC San Diego Health, San kamagra viagra jelly reviews Diego, CANancy J. Binkin, M.D., M.P.H.UC San Diego, La Jolla, CALouise C. Laurent, M.D., Ph.D.David Pride, M.D., Ph.D.Christopher kamagra viagra jelly reviews A.

Longhurst, M.D.Shira R. Abeles, M.D.Francesca kamagra viagra jelly reviews J. Torriani, M.D.UC San Diego Health, San Diego, CA [email protected] Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this letter at NEJM.org. This letter was published on September kamagra viagra jelly reviews 1, 2021, and updated on September 3, 2021, at NEJM.org.

Dr. Laurent serves as an author on behalf of the SEARCH Alliance. Collaborators in the SEARCH Alliance are listed in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this letter at NEJM.org. Drs.

Keehner and Horton and Drs. Abeles and Torriani contributed equally to this letter. 5 References1. Keehner J, Abeles SR, Torriani FJ.

More on erectile dysfunction after vaccination in health care workers. Reply. N Engl J Med 2021;385(2):e8.2. Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, et al.

Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 erectile dysfunction treatment. N Engl J Med 2021;384:403-416.3. Thomas SJ, Moreira ED Jr, Kitchin N, et al. Six month safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA erectile dysfunction treatment.

July 28, 2021 (https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.07.28.21261159v1). Preprint.Google Scholar4. Lopez Bernal J, Andrews N, Gower C, et al. Effectiveness of erectile dysfunction treatments against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant.

N Engl J Med 2021;385:585-594.5. Israel A, Merzon E, Schäffer AA, et al. Elapsed time since BNT162b2 treatment and risk of erectile dysfunction in a large cohort. August 5, 2021 (https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.08.03.21261496v1).

Preprint.Google Scholar10.1056/NEJMc2112981-t1Table 1. Symptomatic erectile dysfunction and mRNA treatment Effectiveness among UCSDH Health Workers, March through July 2021.* MarchAprilMayJuneJulyUCSDH workforce — no. Of persons18,96418,99219,00019,03519,016Vaccination status — no. Of personsFully vaccinated†14,47015,51016,15716,42616,492mRNA-1273 (Moderna)6,6087,0057,3407,4517,464BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech)7,8628,5058,8178,9759,028Unvaccinated3,2302,5092,1872,0591,895Percentage of workers fully vaccinated76.381.785.086.386.7Symptomatic erectile dysfunction treatmentFully vaccinated workers343594Unvaccinated workers1117101031Percentage of cases in fully vaccinated workers21.419.023.133.375.2Attack rate per 1000 (95% CI)Fully vaccinated workers0.21 (0.21–0.47)0.26 (0.26–0.50)0.19 (0.21–0.40)0.30 (0.31–0.53)5.7 (5.4–6.2)Unvaccinated workers3.4 (2.1–5.9)6.8 (4.5–10.6)4.6 (2.6–8.2)4.9 (2.9–8.7)16.4 (11.8–22.9)treatment effectiveness — % (95% CI)93.9 (78.2–97.9)96.2 (88.7–98.3)95.9 (85.3–98.9)94.3 (83.7–98.0)65.5 (48.9–76.9)V-safe Surveillance.

Local and Systemic Reactogenicity in Pregnant Persons Table 1. Table 1. Characteristics of Persons Who Identified as Pregnant in the V-safe Surveillance System and Received an mRNA erectile dysfunction treatment. Table 2.

Table 2. Frequency of Local and Systemic Reactions Reported on the Day after mRNA erectile dysfunction treatment Vaccination in Pregnant Persons. From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, a total of 35,691 v-safe participants identified as pregnant. Age distributions were similar among the participants who received the Pfizer–BioNTech treatment and those who received the Moderna treatment, with the majority of the participants being 25 to 34 years of age (61.9% and 60.6% for each treatment, respectively) and non-Hispanic White (76.2% and 75.4%, respectively).

Most participants (85.8% and 87.4%, respectively) reported being pregnant at the time of vaccination (Table 1). Solicited reports of injection-site pain, fatigue, headache, and myalgia were the most frequent local and systemic reactions after either dose for both treatments (Table 2) and were reported more frequently after dose 2 for both treatments. Participant-measured temperature at or above 38°C was reported by less than 1% of the participants on day 1 after dose 1 and by 8.0% after dose 2 for both treatments. Figure 1.

Figure 1. Most Frequent Local and Systemic Reactions Reported in the V-safe Surveillance System on the Day after mRNA erectile dysfunction treatment Vaccination. Shown are solicited reactions in pregnant persons and nonpregnant women 16 to 54 years of age who received a messenger RNA (mRNA) erectile dysfunction disease 2019 (erectile dysfunction treatment) treatment — BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) — from December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021. The percentage of respondents was calculated among those who completed a day 1 survey, with the top events shown of injection-site pain (pain), fatigue or tiredness (fatigue), headache, muscle or body aches (myalgia), chills, and fever or felt feverish (fever).These patterns of reporting, with respect to both most frequently reported solicited reactions and the higher reporting of reactogenicity after dose 2, were similar to patterns observed among nonpregnant women (Figure 1).

Small differences in reporting frequency between pregnant persons and nonpregnant women were observed for specific reactions (injection-site pain was reported more frequently among pregnant persons, and other systemic reactions were reported more frequently among nonpregnant women), but the overall reactogenicity profile was similar. Pregnant persons did not report having severe reactions more frequently than nonpregnant women, except for nausea and vomiting, which were reported slightly more frequently only after dose 2 (Table S3). V-safe Pregnancy Registry. Pregnancy Outcomes and Neonatal Outcomes Table 3.

Table 3. Characteristics of V-safe Pregnancy Registry Participants. As of March 30, 2021, the v-safe pregnancy registry call center attempted to contact 5230 persons who were vaccinated through February 28, 2021, and who identified during a v-safe survey as pregnant at or shortly after erectile dysfunction treatment vaccination. Of these, 912 were unreachable, 86 declined to participate, and 274 did not meet inclusion criteria (e.g., were never pregnant, were pregnant but received vaccination more than 30 days before the last menstrual period, or did not provide enough information to determine eligibility).

The registry enrolled 3958 participants with vaccination from December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, of whom 3719 (94.0%) identified as health care personnel. Among enrolled participants, most were 25 to 44 years of age (98.8%), non-Hispanic White (79.0%), and, at the time of interview, did not report a erectile dysfunction treatment diagnosis during pregnancy (97.6%) (Table 3). Receipt of a first dose of treatment meeting registry-eligibility criteria was reported by 92 participants (2.3%) during the periconception period, by 1132 (28.6%) in the first trimester of pregnancy, by 1714 (43.3%) in the second trimester, and by 1019 (25.7%) in the third trimester (1 participant was missing information to determine the timing of vaccination) (Table 3). Among 1040 participants (91.9%) who received a treatment in the first trimester and 1700 (99.2%) who received a treatment in the second trimester, initial data had been collected and follow-up scheduled at designated time points approximately 10 to 12 weeks apart.

Limited follow-up calls had been made at the time of this analysis. Table 4. Table 4. Pregnancy Loss and Neonatal Outcomes in Published Studies and V-safe Pregnancy Registry Participants.

Among 827 participants who had a completed pregnancy, the pregnancy resulted in a live birth in 712 (86.1%), in a spontaneous abortion in 104 (12.6%), in stillbirth in 1 (0.1%), and in other outcomes (induced abortion and ectopic pregnancy) in 10 (1.2%). A total of 96 of 104 spontaneous abortions (92.3%) occurred before 13 weeks of gestation (Table 4), and 700 of 712 pregnancies that resulted in a live birth (98.3%) were among persons who received their first eligible treatment dose in the third trimester. Adverse outcomes among 724 live-born infants — including 12 sets of multiple gestation — were preterm birth (60 of 636 among those vaccinated before 37 weeks [9.4%]), small size for gestational age (23 of 724 [3.2%]), and major congenital anomalies (16 of 724 [2.2%]). No neonatal deaths were reported at the time of interview.

Among the participants with completed pregnancies who reported congenital anomalies, none had received erectile dysfunction treatment in the first trimester or periconception period, and no specific pattern of congenital anomalies was observed. Calculated proportions of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes appeared similar to incidences published in the peer-reviewed literature (Table 4). Adverse-Event Findings on the VAERS During the analysis period, the VAERS received and processed 221 reports involving erectile dysfunction treatment vaccination among pregnant persons. 155 (70.1%) involved nonpregnancy-specific adverse events, and 66 (29.9%) involved pregnancy- or neonatal-specific adverse events (Table S4).

The most frequently reported pregnancy-related adverse events were spontaneous abortion (46 cases. 37 in the first trimester, 2 in the second trimester, and 7 in which the trimester was unknown or not reported), followed by stillbirth, premature rupture of membranes, and vaginal bleeding, with 3 reports for each. No congenital anomalies were reported to the VAERS, a requirement under the EUAs.Study Design We used two approaches to estimate the effect of vaccination on the delta variant. First, we used a test-negative case–control design to estimate treatment effectiveness against symptomatic disease caused by the delta variant, as compared with the alpha variant, over the period that the delta variant has been circulating.

This approach has been described in detail elsewhere.10 In brief, we compared vaccination status in persons with symptomatic erectile dysfunction treatment with vaccination status in persons who reported symptoms but had a negative test. This approach helps to control for biases related to health-seeking behavior, access to testing, and case ascertainment. For the secondary analysis, the proportion of persons with cases caused by the delta variant relative to the main circulating kamagra (the alpha variant) was estimated according to vaccination status. The underlying assumption was that if the treatment had some efficacy and was equally effective against each variant, a similar proportion of cases with either variant would be expected in unvaccinated persons and in vaccinated persons.

Conversely, if the treatment was less effective against the delta variant than against the alpha variant, then the delta variant would be expected to make up a higher proportion of cases occurring more than 3 weeks after vaccination than among unvaccinated persons. Details of this analysis are described in Section S1 in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org. The authors vouch for the accuracy and completeness of the data and for the fidelity of the trial to the protocol. Data Sources Vaccination Status Data on all persons in England who have been vaccinated with erectile dysfunction treatments are available in a national vaccination register (the National Immunisation Management System).

Data regarding vaccinations that had occurred up to May 16, 2021, including the date of receipt of each dose of treatment and the treatment type, were extracted on May 17, 2021. Vaccination status was categorized as receipt of one dose of treatment among persons who had symptom onset occurring 21 days or more after receipt of the first dose up to the day before the second dose was received, as receipt of the second dose among persons who had symptom onset occurring 14 days or more after receipt of the second dose, and as receipt of the first or second dose among persons with symptom onset occurring 21 days or more after the receipt of the first dose (including any period after the receipt of the second dose). erectile dysfunction Testing Polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) testing for erectile dysfunction in the United Kingdom is undertaken by hospital and public health laboratories, as well as by community testing with the use of drive-through or at-home testing, which is available to anyone with symptoms consistent with erectile dysfunction treatment (high temperature, new continuous cough, or loss or change in sense of smell or taste). Data on all positive PCR tests between October 26, 2020, and May 16, 2021, were extracted.

Data on all recorded negative community tests among persons who reported symptoms were also extracted for the test-negative case–control analysis. Children younger than 16 years of age as of March 21, 2021, were excluded. Data were restricted to persons who had reported symptoms, and only persons who had undergone testing within 10 days after symptom onset were included, in order to account for reduced sensitivity of PCR testing beyond this period.25 Identification of Variant Whole-genome sequencing was used to identify the delta and alpha variants. The proportion of all positive samples that were sequenced increased from approximately 10% in February 2021 to approximately 60% in May 2021.4 Sequencing is undertaken at a network of laboratories, including the Wellcome Sanger Institute, where a high proportion of samples has been tested, and whole-genome sequences are assigned to Public Health England definitions of variants on the basis of mutations.26 Spike gene target status on PCR was used as a second approach for identifying each variant.

Laboratories used the TaqPath assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific) to test for three gene targets. Spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), and open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab). In December 2020, the alpha variant was noted to be associated with negative testing on the S target, so S target–negative status was subsequently used as a proxy for identification of the variant. The alpha variant accounts for between 98% and 100% of S target–negative results in England.

Among sequenced samples that tested positive for the S target, the delta variant was in 72.2% of the samples in April 2021 and in 93.0% in May (as of May 12, 2021).4 For the test-negative case–control analysis, only samples that had been tested at laboratories with the use of the TaqPath assay were included. Data Linkage The three data sources described above were linked with the use of the National Health Service number (a unique identifier for each person receiving medical care in the United Kingdom). These data sources were also linked with data on the patient’s date of birth, surname, first name, postal code, and specimen identifiers and sample dates. Covariates Multiple covariates that may be associated with the likelihood of being offered or accepting a treatment and the risk of exposure to erectile dysfunction treatment or specifically to either of the variants analyzed were also extracted from the National Immunisation Management System and the testing data.

These data included age (in 10-year age groups), sex, index of multiple deprivation (a national indication of level of deprivation that is based on small geographic areas of residence,27 assessed in quintiles), race or ethnic group, care home residence status, history of foreign travel (i.e., outside the United Kingdom or Ireland), geographic region, period (calendar week), health and social care worker status, and status of being in a clinically extremely vulnerable group.28 In addition, for the test-negative case–control analysis, history of erectile dysfunction before the start of the vaccination program was included. Persons were considered to have traveled if, at the point of requesting a test, they reported having traveled outside the United Kingdom and Ireland within the preceding 14 days or if they had been tested in a quarantine hotel or while quarantining at home. Postal codes were used to determine the index of multiple deprivation, and unique property-reference numbers were used to identify care homes.29 Statistical Analysis For the test-negative case–control analysis, logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having a symptomatic, PCR-confirmed case of erectile dysfunction treatment among vaccinated persons as compared with unvaccinated persons (control). Cases were identified as having the delta variant by means of sequencing or if they were S target–positive on the TaqPath PCR assay.

Cases were identified as having the alpha variant by means of sequencing or if they were S target–negative on the TaqPath PCR assay. If a person had tested positive on multiple occasions within a 90-day period (which may represent a single illness episode), only the first positive test was included. A maximum of three randomly chosen negative test results were included for each person. Negative tests in which the sample had been obtained within 3 weeks before a positive result or after a positive result could have been false negatives.

Therefore, these were excluded. Tests that had been administered within 7 days after a previous negative result were also excluded. Persons who had previously tested positive before the analysis period were also excluded in order to estimate treatment effectiveness in fully susceptible persons. All the covariates were included in the model as had been done with previous test-negative case–control analyses, with calendar week included as a factor and without an interaction with region.

With regard to S target–positive or –negative status, only persons who had tested positive on the other two PCR gene targets were included. Assignment to the delta variant on the basis of S target status was restricted to the week commencing April 12, 2021, and onward in order to aim for high specificity of S target–positive testing for the delta variant.4 treatment effectiveness for the first dose was estimated among persons with a symptom-onset date that was 21 days or more after receipt of the first dose of treatment, and treatment effects for the second dose were estimated among persons with a symptom-onset date that was 14 days or more after receipt of the second dose. Comparison was made with unvaccinated persons and with persons who had symptom onset in the period of 4 to 13 days after vaccination in order to help account for differences in underlying risk of . The period from the day of treatment administration (day 0) to day 3 was excluded because reactogenicity to the treatment can cause an increase in testing that biases results, as previously described.10Study Sample A total of 103,199 hospitalizations of patients with erectile dysfunction treatment–like illness who were 50 years of age or older were identified by the seven VISION partners.

Of these hospitalizations, 64,400 (62%) occurred after the dates of age-specific erectile dysfunction treatment eligibility and the time required for vaccination records to be updated (Table S3). The hospitalizations occurred during the period from January 1 through June 22, 2021. Among unvaccinated patients who were hospitalized, the median duration from treatment eligibility to the index date was 39 days (interquartile range, 16 to 70) (Table S4). erectile dysfunction testing with a molecular assay ordered by clinicians was conducted for 74% of the patients who were hospitalized (range across network partners, 55 to 99).

During the period from January 1 through June 22, a total of 121,709 visits to emergency departments or urgent care clinics for erectile dysfunction treatment–like illness were identified by three partners. 76,220 visits (63%) occurred after treatment age eligibility and updates to vaccination records (Table S5). Among the patients who visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic, the median duration from treatment eligibility to the index date was 39 days (interquartile range, 15 to 70). 30% (range, 25 to 41) of these patients were tested by means of molecular assay.

Across the partners, 1872 hospitalizations and 1350 emergency department or urgent care clinic visits were excluded because the index dates occurred 1 to 13 days after the patient received the first dose of erectile dysfunction treatment and immunity was considered indeterminant. Table 2. Table 2. Characteristics of the Patients According to erectile dysfunction Test Results and Vaccination Status.

Our analytic sample included 41,552 hospitalizations and 21,522 emergency department or urgent care clinic visits. 3% of the hospitalizations and 14% of the emergency department or urgent care clinic visits were repeat medical visits by the same patient (Table 2). Characteristics of the patients are listed in Table 2, and characteristics of the patients according to network partner are provided in Tables S6 through S11. The median age was 74 years (interquartile range, 66 to 82) among hospitalized patients and 70 years (interquartile range, 61 to 78) among those who visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic.

Black patients and Hispanic patients accounted for a larger percentage of medical visits in the hospitalization sample (9% and 11%, respectively) than in the emergency department or urgent care sample (4% and 5%). These findings reflect in part the differing demographic characteristics of the network partners that contributed data on emergency department or urgent care clinic visits. The percentage of patients with underlying medical conditions was higher among hospitalized patients than among those who visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic. erectile dysfunction treatment–Associated Medical Care We identified 4321 patients with erectile dysfunction treatment who had laboratory-confirmed erectile dysfunction among 41,552 patients who were hospitalized (10%.

Range across network partners, 5 to 21). The remaining 37,231 hospitalized patients (90%) had discharge codes for erectile dysfunction treatment–like illness but were erectile dysfunction–negative. Laboratory-confirmed erectile dysfunction was identified in 3251 of 21,522 patients who visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic (15%. Range across network partners, 9 to 19).

The remaining 18,271 patients who visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic (85%) were erectile dysfunction–negative (Table 2). The percentage of erectile dysfunction–positive patients also varied among network partners (Tables S12 and S13). The percentage of patients with laboratory-confirmed erectile dysfunction decreased with age among hospitalized patients and among those with emergency department or urgent care clinic visits. In both care settings, the percentage of infected patients was higher among unvaccinated patients and lower among White patients, non-Hispanic patients, and those with chronic nonrespiratory conditions.

The numbers of both erectile dysfunction–positive patients and erectile dysfunction–negative patients with medical visits on each day are provided in Figures S1 through S10. erectile dysfunction treatment Vaccination Status On the index date, unvaccinated patients composed approximately half the patients who were hospitalized (49%. Range across network partners, 26 to 73) or visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic (55%. Range, 45 to 65) (Table 2).

In both samples, the largest differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were age, network partner, calendar time, and local erectile dysfunction circulation on the index date. These same differences were noted when the sample was limited to erectile dysfunction–positive patients only (Tables S14 and S15). As described in the Supplementary Appendix, the application of inverse propensity-to-be-vaccinated weighting reduced the differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients with respect to these factors and other patient characteristics to a standard mean difference of less than 0.2. Among vaccinated patients, 53.4% of those who were hospitalized and 53.7% of those who visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic had received the BNT162b2 treatment, 43.3% and 41.6%, respectively, had received the mRNA-1273 treatment, and 3.3% and 4.7%, respectively, had received the Ad26.COV2.S treatment.

The median days from full vaccination to the index date were similar with the three types of erectile dysfunction treatments and with both samples (hospitalization and emergency department or urgent care clinic) (range, 42 to 53). Among the patients who received the BNT162b2 treatment, the median duration from partial vaccination (one dose) to the index date of hospitalization was 21 days and the median duration from partial vaccination to the index date of an emergency department or urgent care visit was 20 days. Among patients who received the mRNA-1273 treatment, these durations were 26 days and 24 days, respectively. These findings reflected the different dosing schedules of these treatments.

MRNA-Based treatment and Hospitalization Figure 1. Figure 1. Estimated treatment Effectiveness against erectile dysfunction Leading to Hospitalization or an Emergency Department or Urgent Care Clinic Visit, According to the Type of treatment. Patients who were partially vaccinated with one dose of a messenger RNA (mRNA)–based treatment received the first dose at least 14 days before the index date for the medical visit and had not received the second dose by the index date.

Patients who were partially vaccinated with two doses of an mRNA-based treatment received the second dose 1 to 13 days before the index date. Fully vaccinated patients received a single dose of the Ad26.COV2.S treatment or the second dose of an mRNA-based treatment at least 14 days before the index date. CI denotes confidence interval, and erectile dysfunction severe acute respiratory syndrome erectile dysfunction 2.Figure 2. Figure 2.

Estimated Effectiveness of Full Two-Dose mRNA Vaccination against erectile dysfunction Leading to Hospitalization, According to Age, Race or Ethnic Group, and Underlying Medical Conditions. Among adults who were 50 years of age or older, the effectiveness of full two-dose mRNA-based vaccination (≥14 days after the second dose) was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87 to 91) against laboratory-confirmed erectile dysfunction leading to hospitalization. The treatment-effectiveness point estimates were similar (differences, ≤5 percentage points) with the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 treatments (Figure 1 and Figure 2). The effectiveness of full mRNA-based vaccination was 83% (95% CI, 77 to 87) among patients who were at least 85 years of age, 86% (95% CI, 75 to 92) among Black patients, 90% (95% CI, 85 to 93) among Hispanic patients, 90% (95% CI, 88 to 92) among patients with chronic respiratory conditions, and 88% (95% CI, 86 to 90) among patients with chronic nonrespiratory conditions (Figure 2).

When the hospital sample was limited to 7283 admissions to an ICU, the effectiveness of full mRNA-based vaccination against laboratory-confirmed erectile dysfunction leading to ICU admission was 90% (95% CI, 86 to 93) (Table S16). Patients who were partially vaccinated with one dose of mRNA-based treatment received the first dose at least 14 days before the index date and had not received the second dose by the index date. Patients who were partially vaccinated with two doses of mRNA-based treatment received the second dose 1 to 13 days before the index date. Among patients who received an mRNA-based treatment, the effectiveness of partial one-dose vaccination (≥14 days after the first dose, but without the second dose) was 54% (95% CI, 47 to 61) against erectile dysfunction leading to hospitalization, and the effectiveness of partial two-dose vaccination (1 to 13 days after the second dose) was 73% (95% CI, 66% to 79).

With both the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 treatments, the effectiveness of full vaccination with respect to erectile dysfunction treatment–associated hospitalization was higher than that of partial vaccination (first dose) (with 95% confidence intervals that did not overlap) (Figure 1). A similar pattern of higher treatment-effectiveness point estimates for full mRNA-based vaccination than for partial mRNA-based vaccination was noted in all stratified analyses (Table S17). The effectiveness after partial vaccination (first dose) was lower with BNT162b2 than with mRNA-1273 (Figure 1). The estimates of the effectiveness of full mRNA-based vaccination were similar when stratified according to the six network partners that contributed the most data on hospitalizations (range, 82 to 97%).

However, heterogeneity was observed among the partners in the estimates of effectiveness of partial vaccination (first dose). treatment effectiveness also remained consistent in the other sensitivity analyses (Section S5). Our simulation model suggested that if both misclassification of outcome and of exposure occur, treatment effectiveness could be underestimated by as much as 10 percentage points, given the rates of clinical testing, percent positivity, and vaccination coverage observed in our hospitalization sample. Figure 3.

Figure 3. Estimated Effectiveness of mRNA-Based Vaccination against erectile dysfunction Leading to Hospitalization or an Emergency Department or Urgent Care Visit, According to the Days since the Most Recent Dose Was Administered. The total number of hospitalizations shown is higher than the total number in the main analysis because this secondary analysis was conducted weeks after the main analysis and incorporated updated information from vaccination records and registries. Specifically, an additional 212 hospitalizations among unvaccinated patients and 831 hospitalizations among vaccinated patients with confirmed vaccination status were included.In secondary analyses, we stratified mRNA-based treatment exposure according to 14-day intervals after administration (Figure 3) and according to type of treatment (Table S18).

treatment effectiveness with respect to erectile dysfunction treatment–associated hospitalization was null 0 to 13 days after the first dose, and treatment-effectiveness point estimates increased through 55 days after the first dose. treatment-effectiveness point estimates for full mRNA-based vaccination remained consistently high (>80%) through at least 112 days after the second dose. MRNA-Based treatment and Emergency Department and Urgent Care Visits Figure 4. Figure 4.

Estimated Effectiveness of Full Two-Dose mRNA-Based Vaccination against erectile dysfunction Leading to an Emergency Department or Urgent Care Clinic Visit, According to Age, Race or Ethnic Group, and Underlying Medical Conditions. The effectiveness of full two-dose mRNA-based vaccination was 91% (95% CI, 89 to 93) against laboratory-confirmed erectile dysfunction leading to emergency department or urgent care clinic visits (Figure 4). The treatment-effectiveness point estimates were similar (3 percentage points) with the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 treatments (Figure 1). The effectiveness of full mRNA-based vaccination was 84% (95% CI, 73 to 91) among adults who were 85 years of age or older, 95% (95% CI, 84 to 98) among Black patients, 81% (95% CI, 70 to 88) among Hispanic patients, and 90% (95% CI, 86 to 93) and 90% (95% CI, 87 to 92) among patients with chronic respiratory conditions and those with chronic nonrespiratory conditions, respectively (Figure 4).

The effectiveness of partial (one-dose) mRNA-based vaccination (both types) against erectile dysfunction leading to emergency department or urgent care clinic visits was 68% (95% CI, 61 to 74), and the effectiveness of partial (two-dose) vaccination was 80% (95% CI, 73 to 85) (Table S19). With both the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 treatments, the effectiveness of full vaccination against erectile dysfunction leading to emergency department or urgent care clinic visits was higher than the effectiveness with partial vaccination (one dose) (Figure 1). In sensitivity analyses, treatment-effectiveness point estimates for full mRNA-based vaccination against erectile dysfunction leading to emergency department or urgent care clinic visits ranged from 89 to 97% across the three network partners. Estimates of treatment effectiveness also remained consistent in other sensitivity analyses (Section S5).

In secondary analyses, treatment effectiveness against erectile dysfunction leading to emergency department or urgent care clinic visits was null 0 to 13 days after the first dose, and then treatment-effectiveness point estimates increased through 55 days after the first dose. treatment-effectiveness point estimates for full mRNA-based vaccination remained consistently high (≥86%) through at least 112 days after the second dose (Figure 3). Estimates of effectiveness according to the type of erectile dysfunction treatment are provided in Table S20. Effectiveness of Ad26.COV2.S treatment Estimates of the effectiveness of Ad26.COV2.S treatment were limited to five network partners with Ad26.COV2.S treatment recipients (CUIMC, Intermountain Healthcare, KPNC, KPNW, and Regenstrief Institute).

These analyses included 11,468 hospitalizations and 8917 emergency department or urgent care clinic visits that occurred after the index date for the first patient who was fully vaccinated with Ad26.COV2.S for each network partner (Figure 1). The effectiveness of the full one-dose Ad26.COV2.S treatment was 68% (95% CI, 50 to 79) with respect to erectile dysfunction treatment–associated hospitalization. The effectiveness of full vaccination against erectile dysfunction leading to emergency department or urgent care clinic visits was 73% (95% CI, 59 to 82) (Figure 1).Study Setting We analyzed observational data from Clalit Health Services (CHS) in order to emulate a target trial of the effects of the BNT162b2 treatment on a broad range of potential adverse events in a population without erectile dysfunction . CHS is the largest of four integrated payer–provider health care organizations that offer mandatory health care coverage in Israel.

CHS insures approximately 52% of the population of Israel (>4.7 million of 9.0 million persons), and the CHS-insured population is approximately representative of the Israeli population at large.17 CHS directly provides outpatient care, and inpatient care is divided between CHS and out-of-network hospitals. CHS information systems are fully digitized and feed into a central data warehouse. Data regarding erectile dysfunction treatment, including the results of all erectile dysfunction polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) tests, erectile dysfunction treatment diagnoses and severity, and vaccinations, are collected centrally by the Israeli Ministry of Health and shared with each of the four national health care organizations daily. This study was approved by the CHS institutional review board.

The study was exempt from the requirement for informed consent. Eligibility Criteria Eligibility criteria included an age of 16 years or older, continuous membership in the health care organization for a full year, no previous erectile dysfunction , and no contact with the health care system in the previous 7 days (the latter criterion was included as an indicator of a health event not related to subsequent vaccination that could reduce the probability of receiving the treatment). Because of difficulties in distinguishing the recoding of previous events from true new events, for each adverse event, persons with a previous diagnosis of that event were excluded. As in our previous study of the effectiveness of the BNT162b2 treatment,10 we also excluded persons from populations in which confounding could not be adequately addressed — long-term care facility residents, persons confined to their homes for medical reasons, health care workers, and persons for whom data on body-mass index or residential area were missing (missing data for these variables are rare in the CHS data).

A complete definition of the study variables is included in Table S1 in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org. Study Design and Oversight The target trial for this study would assign eligible persons to either vaccination or no vaccination. To emulate this trial, on each day from the beginning of the vaccination campaign in Israel (December 20, 2020) until the end of the study period (May 24, 2021), eligible persons who were vaccinated on that day were matched to eligible controls who had not been previously vaccinated. Since the matching process each day considered only information available on or before that day (and was thus unaffected by later vaccinations or erectile dysfunction s), unvaccinated persons matched on a given day could be vaccinated on a future date, and on that future date they could become newly eligible for inclusion in the study as a vaccinated person.

In an attempt to emulate randomized assignment, vaccinated persons and unvaccinated controls were exactly matched on a set of baseline variables that were deemed to be potential confounders according to domain expertise — namely, variables that were potentially related to vaccination and to a tendency toward the development of a broad set of adverse clinical conditions. These matching criteria included the sociodemographic variables of age (categorized into 2-year age groups), sex (male or female), place of residence (at city- or town-level granularity), socioeconomic status (divided into seven categories), and population sector (general Jewish, Arab, or ua-Orthodox Jewish). In addition, the matching criteria included clinical factors to account for general clinical condition and disease load, including the number of preexisting chronic conditions (those considered to be risk factors for severe erectile dysfunction treatment by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] as of December 20, 2020,18 divided into four categories), the number of diagnoses documented in outpatient visits in the year before the index date (categorized into deciles within each age group), and pregnancy status. All the authors designed the study and critically reviewed the manuscript.

The first three authors collected and analyzed the data. A subgroup of the authors wrote the manuscript. The last author vouches for the accuracy and completeness of the data and for the fidelity of the study to the protocol. There was no commercial funding for this study, and no confidentiality agreements were in place.

Adverse Events of Interest The set of potential adverse events for the target trial was drawn from several relevant sources, including the VAERS, BEST, and SPEAC frameworks, information provided by the treatment manufacturer, and relevant scientific publications. We cast a wide net to capture a broad range of clinically meaningful short- and medium-term potential adverse events that would be likely to be documented in the electronic health record. Accordingly, mild adverse events such as fever, malaise, and local injection-site reactions were not included in this study. The study included 42 days of follow-up, which provided 21 days of follow-up after each of the first and second treatment doses.

A total of 42 days was deemed to be sufficient for identifying medium-term adverse events, without being so long as to dilute the incidence of short-term adverse events. Similarly, adverse events that could not plausibly be diagnosed within 42 days (e.g., chronic autoimmune disease) were not included. Adverse events were defined according to diagnostic codes and short free-text phrases that accompany diagnoses in the CHS database. A complete list of the study outcomes (adverse events) and their definitions is provided in Table S2.

For each adverse event, persons were followed from the day of matching (time zero of follow-up) until the earliest of one of the following. Documentation of the adverse event, 42 days, the end of the study calendar period, or death. We also ended the follow-up of a matched pair when the unvaccinated control received the first dose of treatment or when either member of the matched pair received a diagnosis of erectile dysfunction . Risks of erectile dysfunction To place the magnitude of the adverse effects of the treatment in context, we also estimated the effects of erectile dysfunction on these same adverse events during the 42 days after diagnosis.

We used the same design as the one that we used to study the adverse effects of vaccination, except that the analysis period started at the beginning of the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra in Israel (March 1, 2020) and persons who had had recent contact with the health care system were not excluded (because such contact may be expected in the days before diagnosis). Each day in this erectile dysfunction analysis, persons with a new diagnosis of erectile dysfunction were matched to controls who were not previously infected. As in the treatment safety analysis, persons could become infected with erectile dysfunction after they were already matched as controls on a previous day, in which case their data would be censored from the control group (along with their matched erectile dysfunction–infected person) and they could then be included in the group of erectile dysfunction–infected persons with a newly matched control. Follow-up of each matched pair started from the date of the positive PCR test result of the infected member and ended in an analogous manner to the main vaccination analysis, this time ending when the control member was infected or when either of the persons in the matched pair was vaccinated.

The effects of vaccination and of erectile dysfunction were estimated with different cohorts. Thus, they should be treated as separate sets of results rather than directly compared. Statistical Analysis Because a large proportion of the unvaccinated controls were vaccinated during the follow-up period, we opted to estimate the observational analogue of the per-protocol effect if all unvaccinated persons had remained unvaccinated during the follow-up. To do so, we censored data on the matched pair if and when the control member was vaccinated.

Persons who were first matched as unvaccinated controls and then became vaccinated during the study period could be included again as vaccinated persons with a new matched control. The same procedure was followed in the erectile dysfunction analysis (i.e., persons who were first matched as uninfected controls and then became infected during the study period could be included again as infected persons with a new matched control). We used the Kaplan–Meier estimator19 to construct cumulative incidence curves and to estimate the risk of each adverse event after 42 days in each group. The risks were compared with ratios and differences (per 100,000 persons).

In the vaccination analysis, so as not to attribute complications arising from erectile dysfunction to the vaccination (or lack thereof), we also censored data on the matched pair if and when either member received a diagnosis of erectile dysfunction . Similarly, in the erectile dysfunction analysis, we censored data on the matched pair if and when either member was vaccinated. Additional details are provided in the Supplementary Methods 1 section in the Supplementary Appendix. We calculated confidence intervals using the nonparametric percentile bootstrap method with 500 repetitions.

As is standard practice for studies of safety outcomes, no adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed. Analyses were performed with the use of R software, version 4.0.4..

To the online pharmacy kamagra Editor. Figure 1 online pharmacy kamagra. Figure 1.

erectile dysfunction Variants online pharmacy kamagra among Symptomatic Health Workers. Shown is the distribution of the B.1.1.7 (alpha), delta, and other erectile dysfunction variants according to vaccination status and month of diagnosis among health workers at University of California San Diego Health, March through July 2021. The number of workers indicates those who were symptomatic and had available variant data, and the number of positive tests indicates those that included data on variants online pharmacy kamagra.

In December 2020, the University of California San Diego Health (UCSDH) workforce experienced a dramatic increase in severe acute respiratory syndrome erectile dysfunction 2 (erectile dysfunction) s. Vaccination with mRNA treatments began in mid-December online pharmacy kamagra 2020. By March, 76% of the workforce had been fully vaccinated, and by July, the percentage had risen to 87%.

s had online pharmacy kamagra decreased dramatically by early February 2021.1 Between March and June, fewer than 30 health care workers tested positive each month. However, coincident with the end of California’s mask mandate on June 15 and the rapid dominance of the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant that first emerged in mid-April and accounted for over 95% of UCSDH isolates by the end of July (Figure 1), s increased rapidly, including cases among fully vaccinated persons. Institutional review board approval was obtained for online pharmacy kamagra use of administrative data on vaccinations and case-investigation data to examine mRNA SARS CoV-2 treatment effectiveness.

UCSDH has a low threshold for erectile dysfunction testing, which is triggered by the presence of at least one symptom during daily screening or by an identified exposure, regardless of vaccination status. From March 1 to July 31, 2021, a online pharmacy kamagra total of 227 UCSDH health care workers tested positive for erectile dysfunction by reverse-transcriptase–quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-qPCR) assay of nasal swabs. 130 of the 227 workers (57.3%) were fully online pharmacy kamagra vaccinated.

Symptoms were present in 109 of the 130 fully vaccinated workers (83.8%) and in 80 of the 90 unvaccinated workers (88.9%). (The remaining 7 workers were only partially vaccinated.) No online pharmacy kamagra deaths were reported in either group. One unvaccinated person was hospitalized for erectile dysfunction–related symptoms.

Table 1 online pharmacy kamagra. Table 1. Symptomatic erectile dysfunction and mRNA treatment Effectiveness among UCSDH Health Workers, March through July online pharmacy kamagra 2021.

treatment effectiveness was calculated for each month from March through July. The case definition online pharmacy kamagra was a positive PCR test and one or more symptoms among persons with no previous erectile dysfunction treatment (see the Supplementary Appendix). treatment effectiveness exceeded 90% from March through June but fell to 65.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48.9 to 76.9) in July (Table 1).

July case rates were analyzed according online pharmacy kamagra to the month in which workers with erectile dysfunction treatment completed the vaccination series. In workers completing vaccination in January or February, the attack rate was 6.7 per 1000 persons (95% CI, 5.9 to 7.8), whereas the attack rate was 3.7 per 1000 persons (95% CI, 2.5 to 5.7) among those who completed vaccination during the period from March through May. Among unvaccinated persons, the July attack online pharmacy kamagra rate was 16.4 per 1000 persons (95% CI, 11.8 to 22.9).

The SARS CoV-2 mRNA treatments, BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna), have previously shown efficacy rates of 95% and 94.1%,2 respectively, in their initial clinical online pharmacy kamagra trials, and for the BNT162b2 treatment, sustained, albeit slightly decreased effectiveness (84%) 4 months after the second dose.3 In England, where an extended dosing interval of up to 12 weeks was used, Lopez Bernal et al. Reported a preserved treatment effectiveness of 88% against symptomatic disease associated with the delta variant.4 As observed by others in populations that received mRNA treatments according to standard Emergency Use Authorization intervals,5 our data suggest that treatment effectiveness against any symptomatic disease is considerably lower against the delta variant and may wane over time since vaccination. The dramatic change in treatment effectiveness from June to July is likely to be due to both the online pharmacy kamagra emergence of the delta variant and waning immunity over time, compounded by the end of masking requirements in California and the resulting greater risk of exposure in the community.

Our findings underline the importance of rapidly reinstating nonpharmaceutical interventions, such as indoor masking and intensive testing strategies, in addition to continued efforts to increase vaccinations, as strategies to prevent avoidable illness and deaths and to avoid mass disruptions to society during the spread of this formidable variant. Furthermore, if our findings on waning immunity are verified in other settings, booster doses online pharmacy kamagra may be indicated. Jocelyn Keehner, M.D.Lucy E.

Horton, M.D., online pharmacy kamagra M.P.H.UC San Diego Health, San Diego, CANancy J. Binkin, M.D., M.P.H.UC San Diego, La Jolla, CALouise C. Laurent, M.D., Ph.D.David online pharmacy kamagra Pride, M.D., Ph.D.Christopher A.

Longhurst, M.D.Shira R. Abeles, M.D.Francesca online pharmacy kamagra J. Torriani, M.D.UC San Diego Health, San Diego, CA [email protected] Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this letter at NEJM.org.

This letter was published on September 1, 2021, and updated online pharmacy kamagra on September 3, 2021, at NEJM.org. Dr. Laurent serves as an author on behalf of the SEARCH Alliance.

Collaborators in the SEARCH Alliance are listed in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this letter at NEJM.org. Drs. Keehner and Horton and Drs.

Abeles and Torriani contributed equally to this letter. 5 References1. Keehner J, Abeles SR, Torriani FJ.

More on erectile dysfunction after vaccination in health care workers. Reply. N Engl J Med 2021;385(2):e8.2.

Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, et al. Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 erectile dysfunction treatment. N Engl J Med 2021;384:403-416.3.

Thomas SJ, Moreira ED Jr, Kitchin N, et al. Six month safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA erectile dysfunction treatment. July 28, 2021 (https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.07.28.21261159v1).

Preprint.Google Scholar4. Lopez Bernal J, Andrews N, Gower C, et al. Effectiveness of erectile dysfunction treatments against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant.

N Engl J Med 2021;385:585-594.5. Israel A, Merzon E, Schäffer AA, et al. Elapsed time since BNT162b2 treatment and risk of erectile dysfunction in a large cohort.

August 5, 2021 (https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.08.03.21261496v1). Preprint.Google Scholar10.1056/NEJMc2112981-t1Table 1. Symptomatic erectile dysfunction and mRNA treatment Effectiveness among UCSDH Health Workers, March through July 2021.* MarchAprilMayJuneJulyUCSDH workforce — no.

Of persons18,96418,99219,00019,03519,016Vaccination status — no. Of personsFully vaccinated†14,47015,51016,15716,42616,492mRNA-1273 (Moderna)6,6087,0057,3407,4517,464BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech)7,8628,5058,8178,9759,028Unvaccinated3,2302,5092,1872,0591,895Percentage of workers fully vaccinated76.381.785.086.386.7Symptomatic erectile dysfunction treatmentFully vaccinated workers343594Unvaccinated workers1117101031Percentage of cases in fully vaccinated workers21.419.023.133.375.2Attack rate per 1000 (95% CI)Fully vaccinated workers0.21 (0.21–0.47)0.26 (0.26–0.50)0.19 (0.21–0.40)0.30 (0.31–0.53)5.7 (5.4–6.2)Unvaccinated workers3.4 (2.1–5.9)6.8 (4.5–10.6)4.6 (2.6–8.2)4.9 (2.9–8.7)16.4 (11.8–22.9)treatment effectiveness — % (95% CI)93.9 (78.2–97.9)96.2 (88.7–98.3)95.9 (85.3–98.9)94.3 (83.7–98.0)65.5 (48.9–76.9)V-safe Surveillance. Local and Systemic Reactogenicity in Pregnant Persons Table 1.

Table 1. Characteristics of Persons Who Identified as Pregnant in the V-safe Surveillance System and Received an mRNA erectile dysfunction treatment. Table 2.

Table 2. Frequency of Local and Systemic Reactions Reported on the Day after mRNA erectile dysfunction treatment Vaccination in Pregnant Persons. From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, a total of 35,691 v-safe participants identified as pregnant.

Age distributions were similar among the participants who received the Pfizer–BioNTech treatment and those who received the Moderna treatment, with the majority of the participants being 25 to 34 years of age (61.9% and 60.6% for each treatment, respectively) and non-Hispanic White (76.2% and 75.4%, respectively). Most participants (85.8% and 87.4%, respectively) reported being pregnant at the time of vaccination (Table 1). Solicited reports of injection-site pain, fatigue, headache, and myalgia were the most frequent local and systemic reactions after either dose for both treatments (Table 2) and were reported more frequently after dose 2 for both treatments.

Participant-measured temperature at or above 38°C was reported by less than 1% of the participants on day 1 after dose 1 and by 8.0% after dose 2 for both treatments. Figure 1. Figure 1.

Most Frequent Local and Systemic Reactions Reported in the V-safe Surveillance System on the Day after mRNA erectile dysfunction treatment Vaccination. Shown are solicited reactions in pregnant persons and nonpregnant women 16 to 54 years of age who received a messenger RNA (mRNA) erectile dysfunction disease 2019 (erectile dysfunction treatment) treatment — BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) — from December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021. The percentage of respondents was calculated among those who completed a day 1 survey, with the top events shown of injection-site pain (pain), fatigue or tiredness (fatigue), headache, muscle or body aches (myalgia), chills, and fever or felt feverish (fever).These patterns of reporting, with respect to both most frequently reported solicited reactions and the higher reporting of reactogenicity after dose 2, were similar to patterns observed among nonpregnant women (Figure 1).

Small differences in reporting frequency between pregnant persons and nonpregnant women were observed for specific reactions (injection-site pain was reported more frequently among pregnant persons, and other systemic reactions were reported more frequently among nonpregnant women), but the overall reactogenicity profile was similar. Pregnant persons did not report having severe reactions more frequently than nonpregnant women, except for nausea and vomiting, which were reported slightly more frequently only after dose 2 (Table S3). V-safe Pregnancy Registry.

Pregnancy Outcomes and Neonatal Outcomes Table 3. Table 3. Characteristics of V-safe Pregnancy Registry Participants.

As of March 30, 2021, the v-safe pregnancy registry call center attempted to contact 5230 persons who were vaccinated through February 28, 2021, and who identified during a v-safe survey as pregnant at or shortly after erectile dysfunction treatment vaccination. Of these, 912 were unreachable, 86 declined to participate, and 274 did not meet inclusion criteria (e.g., were never pregnant, were pregnant but received vaccination more than 30 days before the last menstrual period, or did not provide enough information to determine eligibility). The registry enrolled 3958 participants with vaccination from December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, of whom 3719 (94.0%) identified as health care personnel.

Among enrolled participants, most were 25 to 44 years of age (98.8%), non-Hispanic White (79.0%), and, at the time of interview, did not report a erectile dysfunction treatment diagnosis during pregnancy (97.6%) (Table 3). Receipt of a first dose of treatment meeting registry-eligibility criteria was reported by 92 participants (2.3%) during the periconception period, by 1132 (28.6%) in the first trimester of pregnancy, by 1714 (43.3%) in the second trimester, and by 1019 (25.7%) in the third trimester (1 participant was missing information to determine the timing of vaccination) (Table 3). Among 1040 participants (91.9%) who received a treatment in the first trimester and 1700 (99.2%) who received a treatment in the second trimester, initial data had been collected and follow-up scheduled at designated time points approximately 10 to 12 weeks apart.

Limited follow-up calls had been made at the time of this analysis. Table 4. Table 4.

Pregnancy Loss and Neonatal Outcomes in Published Studies and V-safe Pregnancy Registry Participants. Among 827 participants who had a completed pregnancy, the pregnancy resulted in a live birth in 712 (86.1%), in a spontaneous abortion in 104 (12.6%), in stillbirth in 1 (0.1%), and in other outcomes (induced abortion and ectopic pregnancy) in 10 (1.2%). A total of 96 of 104 spontaneous abortions (92.3%) occurred before 13 weeks of gestation (Table 4), and 700 of 712 pregnancies that resulted in a live birth (98.3%) were among persons who received their first eligible treatment dose in the third trimester.

Adverse outcomes among 724 live-born infants — including 12 sets of multiple gestation — were preterm birth (60 of 636 among those vaccinated before 37 weeks [9.4%]), small size for gestational age (23 of 724 [3.2%]), and major congenital anomalies (16 of 724 [2.2%]). No neonatal deaths were reported at the time of interview. Among the participants with completed pregnancies who reported congenital anomalies, none had received erectile dysfunction treatment in the first trimester or periconception period, and no specific pattern of congenital anomalies was observed.

Calculated proportions of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes appeared similar to incidences published in the peer-reviewed literature (Table 4). Adverse-Event Findings on the VAERS During the analysis period, the VAERS received and processed 221 reports involving erectile dysfunction treatment vaccination among pregnant persons. 155 (70.1%) involved nonpregnancy-specific adverse events, and 66 (29.9%) involved pregnancy- or neonatal-specific adverse events (Table S4).

The most frequently reported pregnancy-related adverse events were spontaneous abortion (46 cases. 37 in the first trimester, 2 in the second trimester, and 7 in which the trimester was unknown or not reported), followed by stillbirth, premature rupture of membranes, and vaginal bleeding, with 3 reports for each. No congenital anomalies were reported to the VAERS, a requirement under the EUAs.Study Design We used two approaches to estimate the effect of vaccination on the delta variant.

First, we used a test-negative case–control design to estimate treatment effectiveness against symptomatic disease caused by the delta variant, as compared with the alpha variant, over the period that the delta variant has been circulating. This approach has been described in detail elsewhere.10 In brief, we compared vaccination status in persons with symptomatic erectile dysfunction treatment with vaccination status in persons who reported symptoms but had a negative test. This approach helps to control for biases related to health-seeking behavior, access to testing, and case ascertainment.

For the secondary analysis, the proportion of persons with cases caused by the delta variant relative to the main circulating kamagra (the alpha variant) was estimated according to vaccination status. The underlying assumption was that if the treatment had some efficacy and was equally effective against each variant, a similar proportion of cases with either variant would be expected in unvaccinated persons and in vaccinated persons. Conversely, if the treatment was less effective against the delta variant than against the alpha variant, then the delta variant would be expected to make up a higher proportion of cases occurring more than 3 weeks after vaccination than among unvaccinated persons.

Details of this analysis are described in Section S1 in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org. The authors vouch for the accuracy and completeness of the data and for the fidelity of the trial to the protocol. Data Sources Vaccination Status Data on all persons in England who have been vaccinated with erectile dysfunction treatments are available in a national vaccination register (the National Immunisation Management System).

Data regarding vaccinations that had occurred up to May 16, 2021, including the date of receipt of each dose of treatment and the treatment type, were extracted on May 17, 2021. Vaccination status was categorized as receipt of one dose of treatment among persons who had symptom onset occurring 21 days or more after receipt of the first dose up to the day before the second dose was received, as receipt of the second dose among persons who had symptom onset occurring 14 days or more after receipt of the second dose, and as receipt of the first or second dose among persons with symptom onset occurring 21 days or more after the receipt of the first dose (including any period after the receipt of the second dose). erectile dysfunction Testing Polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) testing for erectile dysfunction in the United Kingdom is undertaken by hospital and public health laboratories, as well as by community testing with the use of drive-through or at-home testing, which is available to anyone with symptoms consistent with erectile dysfunction treatment (high temperature, new continuous cough, or loss or change in sense of smell or taste).

Data on all positive PCR tests between October 26, 2020, and May 16, 2021, were extracted. Data on all recorded negative community tests among persons who reported symptoms were also extracted for the test-negative case–control analysis. Children younger than 16 years of age as of March 21, 2021, were excluded.

Data were restricted to persons who had reported symptoms, and only persons who had undergone testing within 10 days after symptom onset were included, in order to account for reduced sensitivity of PCR testing beyond this period.25 Identification of Variant Whole-genome sequencing was used to identify the delta and alpha variants. The proportion of all positive samples that were sequenced increased from approximately 10% in February 2021 to approximately 60% in May 2021.4 Sequencing is undertaken at a network of laboratories, including the Wellcome Sanger Institute, where a high proportion of samples has been tested, and whole-genome sequences are assigned to Public Health England definitions of variants on the basis of mutations.26 Spike gene target status on PCR was used as a second approach for identifying each variant. Laboratories used the TaqPath assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific) to test for three gene targets.

Spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), and open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab). In December 2020, the alpha variant was noted to be associated with negative testing on the S target, so S target–negative status was subsequently used as a proxy for identification of the variant. The alpha variant accounts for between 98% and 100% of S target–negative results in England.

Among sequenced samples that tested positive for the S target, the delta variant was in 72.2% of the samples in April 2021 and in 93.0% in May (as of May 12, 2021).4 For the test-negative case–control analysis, only samples that had been tested at laboratories with the use of the TaqPath assay were included. Data Linkage The three data sources described above were linked with the use of the National Health Service number (a unique identifier for each person receiving medical care in the United Kingdom). These data sources were also linked with data on the patient’s date of birth, surname, first name, postal code, and specimen identifiers and sample dates.

Covariates Multiple covariates that may be associated with the likelihood of being offered or accepting a treatment and the risk of exposure to erectile dysfunction treatment or specifically to either of the variants analyzed were also extracted from the National Immunisation Management System and the testing data. These data included age (in 10-year age groups), sex, index of multiple deprivation (a national indication of level of deprivation that is based on small geographic areas of residence,27 assessed in quintiles), race or ethnic group, care home residence status, history of foreign travel (i.e., outside the United Kingdom or Ireland), geographic region, period (calendar week), health and social care worker status, and status of being in a clinically extremely vulnerable group.28 In addition, for the test-negative case–control analysis, history of erectile dysfunction before the start of the vaccination program was included. Persons were considered to have traveled if, at the point of requesting a test, they reported having traveled outside the United Kingdom and Ireland within the preceding 14 days or if they had been tested in a quarantine hotel or while quarantining at home.

Postal codes were used to determine the index of multiple deprivation, and unique property-reference numbers were used to identify care homes.29 Statistical Analysis For the test-negative case–control analysis, logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of having a symptomatic, PCR-confirmed case of erectile dysfunction treatment among vaccinated persons as compared with unvaccinated persons (control). Cases were identified as having the delta variant by means of sequencing or if they were S target–positive on the TaqPath PCR assay. Cases were identified as having the alpha variant by means of sequencing or if they were S target–negative on the TaqPath PCR assay.

If a person had tested positive on multiple occasions within a 90-day period (which may represent a single illness episode), only the first positive test was included. A maximum of three randomly chosen negative test results were included for each person. Negative tests in which the sample had been obtained within 3 weeks before a positive result or after a positive result could have been false negatives.

Therefore, these were excluded. Tests that had been administered within 7 days after a previous negative result were also excluded. Persons who had previously tested positive before the analysis period were also excluded in order to estimate treatment effectiveness in fully susceptible persons.

All the covariates were included in the model as had been done with previous test-negative case–control analyses, with calendar week included as a factor and without an interaction with region. With regard to S target–positive or –negative status, only persons who had tested positive on the other two PCR gene targets were included. Assignment to the delta variant on the basis of S target status was restricted to the week commencing April 12, 2021, and onward in order to aim for high specificity of S target–positive testing for the delta variant.4 treatment effectiveness for the first dose was estimated among persons with a symptom-onset date that was 21 days or more after receipt of the first dose of treatment, and treatment effects for the second dose were estimated among persons with a symptom-onset date that was 14 days or more after receipt of the second dose.

Comparison was made with unvaccinated persons and with persons who had symptom onset in the period of 4 to 13 days after vaccination in order to help account for differences in underlying risk of . The period from the day of treatment administration (day 0) to day 3 was excluded because reactogenicity to the treatment can cause an increase in testing that biases results, as previously described.10Study Sample A total of 103,199 hospitalizations of patients with erectile dysfunction treatment–like illness who were 50 years of age or older were identified by the seven VISION partners. Of these hospitalizations, 64,400 (62%) occurred after the dates of age-specific erectile dysfunction treatment eligibility and the time required for vaccination records to be updated (Table S3).

The hospitalizations occurred during the period from January 1 through June 22, 2021. Among unvaccinated patients who were hospitalized, the median duration from treatment eligibility to the index date was 39 days (interquartile range, 16 to 70) (Table S4). erectile dysfunction testing with a molecular assay ordered by clinicians was conducted for 74% of the patients who were hospitalized (range across network partners, 55 to 99).

During the period from January 1 through June 22, a total of 121,709 visits to emergency departments or urgent care clinics for erectile dysfunction treatment–like illness were identified by three partners. 76,220 visits (63%) occurred after treatment age eligibility and updates to vaccination records (Table S5). Among the patients who visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic, the median duration from treatment eligibility to the index date was 39 days (interquartile range, 15 to 70).

30% (range, 25 to 41) of these patients were tested by means of molecular assay. Across the partners, 1872 hospitalizations and 1350 emergency department or urgent care clinic visits were excluded because the index dates occurred 1 to 13 days after the patient received the first dose of erectile dysfunction treatment and immunity was considered indeterminant. Table 2.

Table 2. Characteristics of the Patients According to erectile dysfunction Test Results and Vaccination Status. Our analytic sample included 41,552 hospitalizations and 21,522 emergency department or urgent care clinic visits.

3% of the hospitalizations and 14% of the emergency department or urgent care clinic visits were repeat medical visits by the same patient (Table 2). Characteristics of the patients are listed in Table 2, and characteristics of the patients according to network partner are provided in Tables S6 through S11. The median age was 74 years (interquartile range, 66 to 82) among hospitalized patients and 70 years (interquartile range, 61 to 78) among those who visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic.

Black patients and Hispanic patients accounted for a larger percentage of medical visits in the hospitalization sample (9% and 11%, respectively) than in the emergency department or urgent care sample (4% and 5%). These findings reflect in part the differing demographic characteristics of the network partners that contributed data on emergency department or urgent care clinic visits. The percentage of patients with underlying medical conditions was higher among hospitalized patients than among those who visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic.

erectile dysfunction treatment–Associated Medical Care We identified 4321 patients with erectile dysfunction treatment who had laboratory-confirmed erectile dysfunction among 41,552 patients who were hospitalized (10%. Range across network partners, 5 to 21). The remaining 37,231 hospitalized patients (90%) had discharge codes for erectile dysfunction treatment–like illness but were erectile dysfunction–negative.

Laboratory-confirmed erectile dysfunction was identified in 3251 of 21,522 patients who visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic (15%. Range across network partners, 9 to 19). The remaining 18,271 patients who visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic (85%) were erectile dysfunction–negative (Table 2).

The percentage of erectile dysfunction–positive patients also varied among network partners (Tables S12 and S13). The percentage of patients with laboratory-confirmed erectile dysfunction decreased with age among hospitalized patients and among those with emergency department or urgent care clinic visits. In both care settings, the percentage of infected patients was higher among unvaccinated patients and lower among White patients, non-Hispanic patients, and those with chronic nonrespiratory conditions.

The numbers of both erectile dysfunction–positive patients and erectile dysfunction–negative patients with medical visits on each day are provided in Figures S1 through S10. erectile dysfunction treatment Vaccination Status On the index date, unvaccinated patients composed approximately half the patients who were hospitalized (49%. Range across network partners, 26 to 73) or visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic (55%.

Range, 45 to 65) (Table 2). In both samples, the largest differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were age, network partner, calendar time, and local erectile dysfunction circulation on the index date. These same differences were noted when the sample was limited to erectile dysfunction–positive patients only (Tables S14 and S15).

As described in the Supplementary Appendix, the application of inverse propensity-to-be-vaccinated weighting reduced the differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients with respect to these factors and other patient characteristics to a standard mean difference of less than 0.2. Among vaccinated patients, 53.4% of those who were hospitalized and 53.7% of those who visited an emergency department or urgent care clinic had received the BNT162b2 treatment, 43.3% and 41.6%, respectively, had received the mRNA-1273 treatment, and 3.3% and 4.7%, respectively, had received the Ad26.COV2.S treatment. The median days from full vaccination to the index date were similar with the three types of erectile dysfunction treatments and with both samples (hospitalization and emergency department or urgent care clinic) (range, 42 to 53).

Among the patients who received the BNT162b2 treatment, the median duration from partial vaccination (one dose) to the index date of hospitalization was 21 days and the median duration from partial vaccination to the index date of an emergency department or urgent care visit was 20 days. Among patients who received the mRNA-1273 treatment, these durations were 26 days and 24 days, respectively. These findings reflected the different dosing schedules of these treatments.

MRNA-Based treatment and Hospitalization Figure 1. Figure 1. Estimated treatment Effectiveness against erectile dysfunction Leading to Hospitalization or an Emergency Department or Urgent Care Clinic Visit, According to the Type of treatment.

Patients who were partially vaccinated with one dose of a messenger RNA (mRNA)–based treatment received the first dose at least 14 days before the index date for the medical visit and had not received the second dose by the index date. Patients who were partially vaccinated with two doses of an mRNA-based treatment received the second dose 1 to 13 days before the index date. Fully vaccinated patients received a single dose of the Ad26.COV2.S treatment or the second dose of an mRNA-based treatment at least 14 days before the index date.

CI denotes confidence interval, and erectile dysfunction severe acute respiratory syndrome erectile dysfunction 2.Figure 2. Figure 2. Estimated Effectiveness of Full Two-Dose mRNA Vaccination against erectile dysfunction Leading to Hospitalization, According to Age, Race or Ethnic Group, and Underlying Medical Conditions.

Among adults who were 50 years of age or older, the effectiveness of full two-dose mRNA-based vaccination (≥14 days after the second dose) was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87 to 91) against laboratory-confirmed erectile dysfunction leading to hospitalization. The treatment-effectiveness point estimates were similar (differences, ≤5 percentage points) with the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 treatments (Figure 1 and Figure 2). The effectiveness of full mRNA-based vaccination was 83% (95% CI, 77 to 87) among patients who were at least 85 years of age, 86% (95% CI, 75 to 92) among Black patients, 90% (95% CI, 85 to 93) among Hispanic patients, 90% (95% CI, 88 to 92) among patients with chronic respiratory conditions, and 88% (95% CI, 86 to 90) among patients with chronic nonrespiratory conditions (Figure 2).

When the hospital sample was limited to 7283 admissions to an ICU, the effectiveness of full mRNA-based vaccination against laboratory-confirmed erectile dysfunction leading to ICU admission was 90% (95% CI, 86 to 93) (Table S16). Patients who were partially vaccinated with one dose of mRNA-based treatment received the first dose at least 14 days before the index date and had not received the second dose by the index date. Patients who were partially vaccinated with two doses of mRNA-based treatment received the second dose 1 to 13 days before the index date.

Among patients who received an mRNA-based treatment, the effectiveness of partial one-dose vaccination (≥14 days after the first dose, but without the second dose) was 54% (95% CI, 47 to 61) against erectile dysfunction leading to hospitalization, and the effectiveness of partial two-dose vaccination (1 to 13 days after the second dose) was 73% (95% CI, 66% to 79). With both the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 treatments, the effectiveness of full vaccination with respect to erectile dysfunction treatment–associated hospitalization was higher than that of partial vaccination (first dose) (with 95% confidence intervals that did not overlap) (Figure 1). A similar pattern of higher treatment-effectiveness point estimates for full mRNA-based vaccination than for partial mRNA-based vaccination was noted in all stratified analyses (Table S17).

The effectiveness after partial vaccination (first dose) was lower with BNT162b2 than with mRNA-1273 (Figure 1). The estimates of the effectiveness of full mRNA-based vaccination were similar when stratified according to the six network partners that contributed the most data on hospitalizations (range, 82 to 97%). However, heterogeneity was observed among the partners in the estimates of effectiveness of partial vaccination (first dose).

treatment effectiveness also remained consistent in the other sensitivity analyses (Section S5). Our simulation model suggested that if both misclassification of outcome and of exposure occur, treatment effectiveness could be underestimated by as much as 10 percentage points, given the rates of clinical testing, percent positivity, and vaccination coverage observed in our hospitalization sample. Figure 3.

Figure 3. Estimated Effectiveness of mRNA-Based Vaccination against erectile dysfunction Leading to Hospitalization or an Emergency Department or Urgent Care Visit, According to the Days since the Most Recent Dose Was Administered. The total number of hospitalizations shown is higher than the total number in the main analysis because this secondary analysis was conducted weeks after the main analysis and incorporated updated information from vaccination records and registries.

Specifically, an additional 212 hospitalizations among unvaccinated patients and 831 hospitalizations among vaccinated patients with confirmed vaccination status were included.In secondary analyses, we stratified mRNA-based treatment exposure according to 14-day intervals after administration (Figure 3) and according to type of treatment (Table S18). treatment effectiveness with respect to erectile dysfunction treatment–associated hospitalization was null 0 to 13 days after the first dose, and treatment-effectiveness point estimates increased through 55 days after the first dose. treatment-effectiveness point estimates for full mRNA-based vaccination remained consistently high (>80%) through at least 112 days after the second dose.

MRNA-Based treatment and Emergency Department and Urgent Care Visits Figure 4. Figure 4. Estimated Effectiveness of Full Two-Dose mRNA-Based Vaccination against erectile dysfunction Leading to an Emergency Department or Urgent Care Clinic Visit, According to Age, Race or Ethnic Group, and Underlying Medical Conditions.

The effectiveness of full two-dose mRNA-based vaccination was 91% (95% CI, 89 to 93) against laboratory-confirmed erectile dysfunction leading to emergency department or urgent care clinic visits (Figure 4). The treatment-effectiveness point estimates were similar (3 percentage points) with the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 treatments (Figure 1). The effectiveness of full mRNA-based vaccination was 84% (95% CI, 73 to 91) among adults who were 85 years of age or older, 95% (95% CI, 84 to 98) among Black patients, 81% (95% CI, 70 to 88) among Hispanic patients, and 90% (95% CI, 86 to 93) and 90% (95% CI, 87 to 92) among patients with chronic respiratory conditions and those with chronic nonrespiratory conditions, respectively (Figure 4).

The effectiveness of partial (one-dose) mRNA-based vaccination (both types) against erectile dysfunction leading to emergency department or urgent care clinic visits was 68% (95% CI, 61 to 74), and the effectiveness of partial (two-dose) vaccination was 80% (95% CI, 73 to 85) (Table S19). With both the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 treatments, the effectiveness of full vaccination against erectile dysfunction leading to emergency department or urgent care clinic visits was higher than the effectiveness with partial vaccination (one dose) (Figure 1). In sensitivity analyses, treatment-effectiveness point estimates for full mRNA-based vaccination against erectile dysfunction leading to emergency department or urgent care clinic visits ranged from 89 to 97% across the three network partners.

Estimates of treatment effectiveness also remained consistent in other sensitivity analyses (Section S5). In secondary analyses, treatment effectiveness against erectile dysfunction leading to emergency department or urgent care clinic visits was null 0 to 13 days after the first dose, and then treatment-effectiveness point estimates increased through 55 days after the first dose. treatment-effectiveness point estimates for full mRNA-based vaccination remained consistently high (≥86%) through at least 112 days after the second dose (Figure 3).

Estimates of effectiveness according to the type of erectile dysfunction treatment are provided in Table S20. Effectiveness of Ad26.COV2.S treatment Estimates of the effectiveness of Ad26.COV2.S treatment were limited to five network partners with Ad26.COV2.S treatment recipients (CUIMC, Intermountain Healthcare, KPNC, KPNW, and Regenstrief Institute). These analyses included 11,468 hospitalizations and 8917 emergency department or urgent care clinic visits that occurred after the index date for the first patient who was fully vaccinated with Ad26.COV2.S for each network partner (Figure 1).

The effectiveness of the full one-dose Ad26.COV2.S treatment was 68% (95% CI, 50 to 79) with respect to erectile dysfunction treatment–associated hospitalization. The effectiveness of full vaccination against erectile dysfunction leading to emergency department or urgent care clinic visits was 73% (95% CI, 59 to 82) (Figure 1).Study Setting We analyzed observational data from Clalit Health Services (CHS) in order to emulate a target trial of the effects of the BNT162b2 treatment on a broad range of potential adverse events in a population without erectile dysfunction . CHS is the largest of four integrated payer–provider health care organizations that offer mandatory health care coverage in Israel.

CHS insures approximately 52% of the population of Israel (>4.7 million of 9.0 million persons), and the CHS-insured population is approximately representative of the Israeli population at large.17 CHS directly provides outpatient care, and inpatient care is divided between CHS and out-of-network hospitals. CHS information systems are fully digitized and feed into a central data warehouse. Data regarding erectile dysfunction treatment, including the results of all erectile dysfunction polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) tests, erectile dysfunction treatment diagnoses and severity, and vaccinations, are collected centrally by the Israeli Ministry of Health and shared with each of the four national health care organizations daily.

This study was approved by the CHS institutional review board. The study was exempt from the requirement for informed consent. Eligibility Criteria Eligibility criteria included an age of 16 years or older, continuous membership in the health care organization for a full year, no previous erectile dysfunction , and no contact with the health care system in the previous 7 days (the latter criterion was included as an indicator of a health event not related to subsequent vaccination that could reduce the probability of receiving the treatment).

Because of difficulties in distinguishing the recoding of previous events from true new events, for each adverse event, persons with a previous diagnosis of that event were excluded. As in our previous study of the effectiveness of the BNT162b2 treatment,10 we also excluded persons from populations in which confounding could not be adequately addressed — long-term care facility residents, persons confined to their homes for medical reasons, health care workers, and persons for whom data on body-mass index or residential area were missing (missing data for these variables are rare in the CHS data). A complete definition of the study variables is included in Table S1 in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.

Study Design and Oversight The target trial for this study would assign eligible persons to either vaccination or no vaccination. To emulate this trial, on each day from the beginning of the vaccination campaign in Israel (December 20, 2020) until the end of the study period (May 24, 2021), eligible persons who were vaccinated on that day were matched to eligible controls who had not been previously vaccinated. Since the matching process each day considered only information available on or before that day (and was thus unaffected by later vaccinations or erectile dysfunction s), unvaccinated persons matched on a given day could be vaccinated on a future date, and on that future date they could become newly eligible for inclusion in the study as a vaccinated person.

In an attempt to emulate randomized assignment, vaccinated persons and unvaccinated controls were exactly matched on a set of baseline variables that were deemed to be potential confounders according to domain expertise — namely, variables that were potentially related to vaccination and to a tendency toward the development of a broad set of adverse clinical conditions. These matching criteria included the sociodemographic variables of age (categorized into 2-year age groups), sex (male or female), place of residence (at city- or town-level granularity), socioeconomic status (divided into seven categories), and population sector (general Jewish, Arab, or ua-Orthodox Jewish). In addition, the matching criteria included clinical factors to account for general clinical condition and disease load, including the number of preexisting chronic conditions (those considered to be risk factors for severe erectile dysfunction treatment by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] as of December 20, 2020,18 divided into four categories), the number of diagnoses documented in outpatient visits in the year before the index date (categorized into deciles within each age group), and pregnancy status.

All the authors designed the study and critically reviewed the manuscript. The first three authors collected and analyzed the data. A subgroup of the authors wrote the manuscript.

The last author vouches for the accuracy and completeness of the data and for the fidelity of the study to the protocol. There was no commercial funding for this study, and no confidentiality agreements were in place. Adverse Events of Interest The set of potential adverse events for the target trial was drawn from several relevant sources, including the VAERS, BEST, and SPEAC frameworks, information provided by the treatment manufacturer, and relevant scientific publications.

We cast a wide net to capture a broad range of clinically meaningful short- and medium-term potential adverse events that would be likely to be documented in the electronic health record. Accordingly, mild adverse events such as fever, malaise, and local injection-site reactions were not included in this study. The study included 42 days of follow-up, which provided 21 days of follow-up after each of the first and second treatment doses.

A total of 42 days was deemed to be sufficient for identifying medium-term adverse events, without being so long as to dilute the incidence of short-term adverse events. Similarly, adverse events that could not plausibly be diagnosed within 42 days (e.g., chronic autoimmune disease) were not included. Adverse events were defined according to diagnostic codes and short free-text phrases that accompany diagnoses in the CHS database.

A complete list of the study outcomes (adverse events) and their definitions is provided in Table S2. For each adverse event, persons were followed from the day of matching (time zero of follow-up) until the earliest of one of the following. Documentation of the adverse event, 42 days, the end of the study calendar period, or death.

We also ended the follow-up of a matched pair when the unvaccinated control received the first dose of treatment or when either member of the matched pair received a diagnosis of erectile dysfunction . Risks of erectile dysfunction To place the magnitude of the adverse effects of the treatment in context, we also estimated the effects of erectile dysfunction on these same adverse events during the 42 days after diagnosis. We used the same design as the one that we used to study the adverse effects of vaccination, except that the analysis period started at the beginning of the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra in Israel (March 1, 2020) and persons who had had recent contact with the health care system were not excluded (because such contact may be expected in the days before diagnosis).

Each day in this erectile dysfunction analysis, persons with a new diagnosis of erectile dysfunction were matched to controls who were not previously infected. As in the treatment safety analysis, persons could become infected with erectile dysfunction after they were already matched as controls on a previous day, in which case their data would be censored from the control group (along with their matched erectile dysfunction–infected person) and they could then be included in the group of erectile dysfunction–infected persons with a newly matched control. Follow-up of each matched pair started from the date of the positive PCR test result of the infected member and ended in an analogous manner to the main vaccination analysis, this time ending when the control member was infected or when either of the persons in the matched pair was vaccinated.

The effects of vaccination and of erectile dysfunction were estimated with different cohorts. Thus, they should be treated as separate sets of results rather than directly compared. Statistical Analysis Because a large proportion of the unvaccinated controls were vaccinated during the follow-up period, we opted to estimate the observational analogue of the per-protocol effect if all unvaccinated persons had remained unvaccinated during the follow-up.

To do so, we censored data on the matched pair if and when the control member was vaccinated. Persons who were first matched as unvaccinated controls and then became vaccinated during the study period could be included again as vaccinated persons with a new matched control. The same procedure was followed in the erectile dysfunction analysis (i.e., persons who were first matched as uninfected controls and then became infected during the study period could be included again as infected persons with a new matched control).

We used the Kaplan–Meier estimator19 to construct cumulative incidence curves and to estimate the risk of each adverse event after 42 days in each group. The risks were compared with ratios and differences (per 100,000 persons). In the vaccination analysis, so as not to attribute complications arising from erectile dysfunction to the vaccination (or lack thereof), we also censored data on the matched pair if and when either member received a diagnosis of erectile dysfunction .

Similarly, in the erectile dysfunction analysis, we censored data on the matched pair if and when either member was vaccinated. Additional details are provided in the Supplementary Methods 1 section in the Supplementary Appendix. We calculated confidence intervals using the nonparametric percentile bootstrap method with 500 repetitions.

As is standard practice for studies of safety outcomes, no adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed. Analyses were performed with the use of R software, version 4.0.4..

Silagra vs kamagra

The Empire Justice Center published a report in May, 2013 exploring buy kamagra without prescription the policies silagra vs kamagra that guide immigrant access to health care and making recommendations for improving immigrant access through New York's Health Insurance Exchange. New York's Exchange Portal. A Gateway to Coverage for Immigrants The report includes a new tool -- Immigrant Eligibility Crosswalk -- Eligibility by Immigration Status-- designed to help advocates and policymakers sort through the tangle of immigrant eligibility categories to determine who is eligible for which health care programs in 2014 and beyond. The report was made possible with support from the United Hospital Fund and benefited from the silagra vs kamagra advice and input from many of our national partners in the effort to ensure maximum participation of immigrants in the nation's healthcare system as well as experts from the New York State Department of Health and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. SEE more about "PRUCOL" immigrant eligibility for Medicaid in this article.

"Undocumented" immigrants are, with some exceptions for pregnant women and Child Health Plus, only eligible for "emergency Medicaid."NYS announced the 2020 Income and Resource levels in GIS 19 MA/12 – 2020 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates ) and levels based on the Federal Poverty Level are in GIS 20 MA/02 – 2020 Federal Poverty Levels Here is the 2020 HRA Income and Resources Level Chart Non-MAGI - 2020 Disabled, 65+ or Blind ("DAB" or SSI-Related) and have Medicare MAGI (2020) (<. 65, Does not have Medicare)(OR has Medicare and has silagra vs kamagra dependent child <. 18 or <. 19 in school) 138% FPL*** Children <. 5 and pregnant women have HIGHER LIMITS than shown ESSENTIAL silagra vs kamagra PLAN For MAGI-eligible people over MAGI income limit up to 200% FPL No long term care.

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ALSO SEE 2018 Manual on Lump Sums and Impact on Public Benefits - with resource rules The income limits increase with the "household size." In other words, the income limit for a family of 5 may be higher than the income limit for a single person. HOWEVER, Medicaid rules about how to calculate the household size are not intuitive or even logical. There are different rules depending on the "category" of the person seeking Medicaid silagra vs kamagra. Here are the 2 basic categories and the rules for calculating their household size. People who are Disabled, Aged 65+ or Blind - "DAB" or "SSI-Related" Category -- NON-MAGI - See this chart for their household size.

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573, NYS GIS 2000 MA-007 CAUTION. Different people in the same household may be in different "categories" and hence have different household sizes AND Medicaid income and resource limits. If a man is age 67 and has Medicare and his wife is age 62 and not disabled or blind, the husband's household size for Medicaid is determined under Category 1/ Non-MAGI above and his wife's is under Category 2/MAGI. The following programs were available prior to 2014, but are now discontinued because they are folded into MAGI Medicaid. Prenatal Care Assistance Program (PCAP) was Medicaid for pregnant women and children under age 19, with higher income limits for pregnant woman and infants under one year (200% FPL for pregnant women receiving perinatal coverage only not full Medicaid) than for children ages 1-18 (133% FPL).

Medicaid for adults between ages 21-65 who are not disabled and without children under 21 in the household. It was sometimes known as "S/CC" category for Singles and Childless Couples. This category had lower income limits than DAB/ADC-related, but had no asset limits. It did not allow "spend down" of excess income.

The Empire Justice Center published a report in May, 2013 exploring the policies that guide immigrant online pharmacy kamagra access to health care and making recommendations for improving immigrant access through New York's Health Insurance Exchange. New York's Exchange Portal. A Gateway to Coverage for Immigrants The report includes a new tool -- Immigrant Eligibility Crosswalk -- Eligibility by Immigration Status-- designed to help advocates and policymakers sort through the tangle of immigrant eligibility categories to determine who is eligible for which health care programs in 2014 and beyond. The report was made possible with support from the United Hospital Fund and benefited from online pharmacy kamagra the advice and input from many of our national partners in the effort to ensure maximum participation of immigrants in the nation's healthcare system as well as experts from the New York State Department of Health and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. SEE more about "PRUCOL" immigrant eligibility for Medicaid in this article.

"Undocumented" immigrants are, with some exceptions for pregnant women and Child Health Plus, only eligible for "emergency Medicaid."NYS announced the 2020 Income and Resource levels in GIS 19 MA/12 – 2020 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates ) and levels based on the Federal Poverty Level are in GIS 20 MA/02 – 2020 Federal Poverty Levels Here is the 2020 HRA Income and Resources Level Chart Non-MAGI - 2020 Disabled, 65+ or Blind ("DAB" or SSI-Related) and have Medicare MAGI (2020) (<. 65, Does online pharmacy kamagra not have Medicare)(OR has Medicare and has dependent child <. 18 or <. 19 in school) 138% FPL*** Children <. 5 and pregnant online pharmacy kamagra women have HIGHER LIMITS than shown ESSENTIAL PLAN For MAGI-eligible people over MAGI income limit up to 200% FPL No long term care.

See info here 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 Income $875 (up from $859 in 201) $1284 (up from $1,267 in 2019) $1,468 $1,983 $2,498 $2,127 $2,873 Resources $15,750 (up from $15,450 in 2019) $23,100 (up from $22,800 in 2019) NO LIMIT** NO LIMIT SOURCE for 2019 figures is GIS 18 MA/015 - 2019 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates (PDF). All of the attachments with the various levels are posted here. NEED online pharmacy kamagra TO KNOW PAST MEDICAID INCOME AND RESOURCE LEVELS?. Which household size applies?. The rules are complicated.

See rules online pharmacy kamagra here. On the HRA Medicaid Levels chart - Boxes 1 and 2 are NON-MAGI Income and Resource levels -- Age 65+, Blind or Disabled and other adults who need to use "spend-down" because they are over the MAGI income levels. Box 10 on page 3 are the MAGI income levels -- The Affordable Care Act changed the rules for Medicaid income eligibility for many BUT NOT ALL New Yorkers. People in the "MAGI" category - those NOT on Medicare -- online pharmacy kamagra have expanded eligibility up to 138% of the Federal Poverty Line, so may now qualify for Medicaid even if they were not eligible before, or may now be eligible for Medicaid without a "spend-down." They have NO resource limit. Box 3 on page 1 is Spousal Impoverishment levels for Managed Long Term Care &.

Nursing Homes and Box 8 has the Transfer Penalty rates for nursing home eligibility Box 4 has Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities Under Age 65 (still 2017 levels til April 2018) Box 6 are Medicare Savings Program levels (will be updated in April 2018) MAGI INCOME LEVEL of 138% FPL applies to most adults who are not disabled and who do not have Medicare, AND can also apply to adults with Medicare if they have a dependent child/relative under age 18 or under 19 if in school. 42 C.F.R online pharmacy kamagra. § 435.4. Certain populations have an even higher income limit - 224% FPL for pregnant women and babies <. Age 1, 154% FPL for children online pharmacy kamagra age 1 - 19.

CAUTION. What is counted as income may not be what you think. For the NON-MAGI Disabled/Aged 65+/Blind, income will still be determined by online pharmacy kamagra the same rules as before, explained in this outline and these charts on income disregards. However, for the MAGI population - which is virtually everyone under age 65 who is not on Medicare - their income will now be determined under new rules, based on federal income tax concepts - called "Modifed Adjusted Gross Income" (MAGI). There are good changes and bad changes.

GOOD. Veteran's online pharmacy kamagra benefits, Workers compensation, and gifts from family or others no longer count as income. BAD. There is no more "spousal" or parental refusal for this population (but there still is for the Disabled/Aged/Blind.) and some other rules. For all of online pharmacy kamagra the rules see.

ALSO SEE 2018 Manual on Lump Sums and Impact on Public Benefits - with resource rules The income limits increase with the "household size." In other words, the income limit for a family of 5 may be higher than the income limit for a single person. HOWEVER, Medicaid rules about how to calculate the household size are not intuitive or even logical. There are different rules online pharmacy kamagra depending on the "category" of the person seeking Medicaid. Here are the 2 basic categories and the rules for calculating their household size. People who are Disabled, Aged 65+ or Blind - "DAB" or "SSI-Related" Category -- NON-MAGI - See this chart for their household size.

These same rules apply to the Medicare Savings Program, with online pharmacy kamagra some exceptions explained in this article. Everyone else -- MAGI - All children and adults under age 65, including people with disabilities who are not yet on Medicare -- this is the new "MAGI" population. Their household size will be determined using federal income tax rules, which are very complicated. New rule is online pharmacy kamagra explained in State's directive 13 ADM-03 - Medicaid Eligibility Changes under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 (PDF) pp. 8-10 of the PDF, This PowerPoint by NYLAG on MAGI Budgeting attempts to explain the new MAGI budgeting, including how to determine the Household Size.

See slides 28-49. Also seeLegal Aid Society and Empire Justice Center materials OLD online pharmacy kamagra RULE used until end of 2013 -- Count the person(s) applying for Medicaid who live together, plus any of their legally responsible relatives who do not receive SNA, ADC, or SSI and reside with an applicant/recipient. Spouses or legally responsible for one another, and parents are legally responsible for their children under age 21 (though if the child is disabled, use the rule in the 1st "DAB" category. Under this rule, a child may be excluded from the household if that child's income causes other family members to lose Medicaid eligibility. See online pharmacy kamagra 18 NYCRR 360-4.2, MRG p.

573, NYS GIS 2000 MA-007 CAUTION. Different people in the same household may be in different "categories" and hence have different household sizes AND Medicaid income and resource limits. If a man is age 67 and has Medicare and his wife is age 62 and not disabled or blind, the husband's online pharmacy kamagra household size for Medicaid is determined under Category 1/ Non-MAGI above and his wife's is under Category 2/MAGI. The following programs were available prior to 2014, but are now discontinued because they are folded into MAGI Medicaid. Prenatal Care Assistance Program (PCAP) was Medicaid for pregnant women and children under age 19, with higher income limits for pregnant woman and infants under one year (200% FPL for pregnant women receiving perinatal coverage only not full Medicaid) than for children ages 1-18 (133% FPL).

Medicaid for adults between ages 21-65 who are not disabled and without children under 21 in the household. It was sometimes known as "S/CC" category for Singles and Childless Couples. This category had lower income limits than DAB/ADC-related, but had no asset limits. It did not allow "spend down" of excess income.