Lasix 40mg price in canada

Do you ever wake up during the night to phantom ringing, buzzing or lasix 40mg price in canada other sounds only you can hear?. This is known as tinnitus, and it's a common reason for sleep problems. Earlier this year, a team at the University of Oxford proposed why this happens, a perspective that they say could lead to better treatment for tinnitus, which researchers estimate affects as many as 1 out of 5 adults and in some cases is highly stressful.

Tinnitus lasix 40mg price in canada can wake you up, but why?. Tinnitus can prevent deeper stages ofsleep. The Oxford team synthesized existing research to propose a new paradigm for tinnitus that interrupts sleep.

First, a lasix 40mg price in canada little background. When you fall asleep, your brain blocks out external stimuli to a great extent—which is how you can fall asleep with the TV on, for example. But how this happens is not well understood, the Oxford team points out, nor do we know much about how sleep changes responses to internal stimuli like tinnitus or pain.

As you lasix 40mg price in canada sleep, you cycle between five stages of brain function several times. The non-dreaming stages account for about three-quarters of your total sleep time. In those periods, the brain produces different types of wave activity that slowly spread back and forth across the brain.

At first, that wave activity may suppress the lasix 40mg price in canada brain signals that create ringing in the ears. But when the wave is less intense, tinnitus signals may surge, either awakening you or preventing more deep sleep, the Oxford team proposed. Tinnitus may trigger wakefulness in the sleeping brain The interaction creates “local wakefulness in the sleeping brain,” preventing you from moving on to the dreaming stage, called REM (“rapid eye movement”) sleep.

It’s worth noting that night terrors, which are linked to tinnitus lasix 40mg price in canada in adults, also occur at this transition point. €œSleep is ultimately linked to how tinnitus develops over time,” co-author Associate Professor Victoria Bajo Lorenzana explained in an Oxford news release. €œThese findings will help researchers to identify a time window where delivering a treatment for tinnitus will be most effective before it develops into a permanent condition.

The findings also may provide information lasix 40mg price in canada about how tinnitus affects sleep quality. This could lead to a new line of research looking at whether sleep could help to correct the abnormal brain activity that is linked to tinnitus.” For more details, see an outline of the argument in this video and this article in The Conversation. "This could lead to a new line of research looking at whether sleep could help to correct the abnormal brain activity that is linked to tinnitus." Tinnitus and sleep disturbances Scientists have long known that a range of sleep problems and chronic tinnitus often come together.

To begin with, tinnitus sufferers lasix 40mg price in canada seem to be lighter sleepers. Loud tinnitus roughly tripled the risk of insomnia in a survey of more than 14,000 Japanese ages 45 to 79, but even mild tinnitus could make it hard to fall asleep, stay asleep or feel rested. “Many of my patients report their tinnitus is very noticeable to them when they are trying to fall asleep as most people sleep in a quiet environment.

When there is little to no other sound present, tinnitus becomes a focal point that is difficult, if not impossible, to ignore,” notes Katie Edmonds, an audiologist in the Bay Pines, lasix 40mg price in canada Florida Veterans Affairs Health System. A hearing care provider can help youmanage tinnitus. In addition, tinnitus, like hearing loss, has been linked to sleep apnea, which usually causes snoring and is associated with daytime sleepiness, high blood pressure, stroke and other illnesses.

Sleep problems tend to vary with lasix 40mg price in canada age. As noted earlier, night terrors, which are most common in young boys, are linked to tinnitus in adults, specifically people ages 20 to 44, a study found. In a night terror you wake up feeling terrified—you may also scream, sweat or have a rapid heart rate—yet have no memory of a bad dream.

Living with both interrupted sleep and phantom sounds is a double lasix 40mg price in canada whammy. As Edmond observes, sleep deprivation can “lead to other problems that contribute to difficulty coping with a chronic condition such as tinnitus.” Women with tinnitus and sleep issues are more likely than men to have headaches and neck pain or feel nervous or restless and men are more likely to report depression, according to 2021 research published in Germany. The good news is that although tinnitus has no cure, counseling and various kinds of sound therapies can cut its severity, which in turn can relieve sleep problems.

Risk factors for tinnitus The risk factors for tinnitus include damage to lasix 40mg price in canada the ear from noise, hearing loss for other reasons, an ear or blockage in the ear canal, or a head or neck injury. It’s important to rule out Meniere’s disease—an inner ear disorder caused by abnormal fluid pressure—temporomandibular joint disorder, certain medications, an abnormal ear bone growth, or a Eustachian tube dysfunction. Drinking, smoking, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and heart problems also can increase your risk.

What you can do to sleep better You might benefit lasix 40mg price in canada from going to bed with restful music set to play for two hours. (Two hours is key — after that, white noise can be over-stimulating.) “Our study showed that this [is helpful],” said co-author Huseyin Deniz, an audiology and speech specialist at Gaziantep University in Turkey, who tested this approach on 30 tinnitus patients. After six months, some patients said they no longer had tinnitus, and in others the sounds were quieter.

Scores on a measure of lasix 40mg price in canada depression also dropped. His goal, he told Healthy Hearing, was to help people “fall asleep with less exposure to the disturbing effects of tinnitus,” rather than prevent them from waking up. But the average length of the first non-REM sleep cycle is 70 to 100 minutes, so two hours would be likely to cover yours.

It’s well worth a try! lasix 40mg price in canada. You might also consider these tips for tinnitus and better sleep. The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the individuals interviewed and do not necessarily reflect the views or positions of the Department of Veterans Affairs or any entities they represent.Contributed by Debbie Clason, staff writer, Healthy HearingLast updated May 17, 2022 Petite or Spock-like, protruding or tucked, flexible or rigid, our ears are as differently shaped and textured as the nose on our faces.

Despite being the object of schoolyard ridicule and tell-tale indicators of embarrassment, our ears perform an important lasix 40mg price in canada function. And for those who wear hearing aids, a custom-fit earmold can make a big difference in more clearly hearing the world around them. The basics of hearing aid earmolds The earmold, shown at bottom right, fitsinside the ear canal and is customized to a person's unique ear shape.

Earmolds versus domes lasix 40mg price in canada The parts of a hearing aid that fit inside the ear come in two basic styles. Earmold or dome style. Earmolds are made of either plastic or silicone and custom-fit so that they sit snugly and precisely within the ear canal.

They generally have small vents lasix 40mg price in canada in them to let air through. Dome styles, which look like small cones, are not customized to a person's individual ear shape. These are stocked in standard sizes and you are given the size that fits best in your ear canal.

They generally have large openings to let in lasix 40mg price in canada lots of natural sound and ventilation. Depending on the type and degree of hearing loss, and the anatomy of the ear, the earmold can be canal size (small), half-shell size (medium) or full-shell size (large). The kind of earmold you wear also depends on your personal preference, the shape and texture of your ear, and your specific hearing aid.

Why earmolds for hearing lasix 40mg price in canada loss?. For people who have trouble hearing at low frequencies or across most or all frequencies (known as flat hearing loss), earmolds deliver better sound because they fit snugly inside the ear. The snug fit keeps amplified sound from traveling back outside the canal and creating a feedback loop, which is a high-pitched whistling that's caused as the amplified sound leaks out and gets re-amplified.

Earmolds are frequently used for lasix 40mg price in canada people with severe to profound hearing loss. "Earmolds are usually best for hearing loss across the entire speech spectrum." "Earmolds are usually best for hearing loss across the entire speech spectrum," said Tom Contento, a board-certified hearing aid instrument specialist and owner of Contentment Hearing Care in Titusville, Fla. People who are already accustomed to wearing hearing aids may prefer the earmold style, while first time hearing aid users often opt for hearing aid domes because they are more comfortable, have less occlusion, and are easily changed, he said.

"Every person lasix 40mg price in canada is an individual," Contento said. "My job is to determine what is best for you. It's a case-by-case basis." For people who have high-frequency hearing loss (meaning they have trouble hearing higher-pitched sounds, like children's voices), dome-style hearing aids are often adequate.

The importance of a good lasix 40mg price in canada fit. Hearing aid molds This woman is wearing an Oticon Dynamopower hearing aid with an earmold.(Picture courtesy of Oticon.) Since ears come in all shapes and sizes, it's important to have a hearing healthcare professional customize an earmold to fit the unique shape of your ear. These devices must be tight enough to prevent sound from leaking out and creating feedback—but not so tight they cause pain.

The customization process is painless and includes making an impression of your ear canal and outer ear with a soft molding lasix 40mg price in canada compound, much like a dentist would use to take an impression of your teeth. Common earmold problems Even though earmolds are made from an actual impression of your own ear, they may need a bit of adjusting. And, since ears change shape and many earmolds are made from softer materials, your hearing care professional will likely check your earmold on an annual basis to make sure it still fits correctly.

Troubleshooting earmold issues Some lasix 40mg price in canada of the common problems earmold users can experience include. Your own voice sounds muffled. Because the earmold blocks the ear canal, users may notice their voices sound muffled, much like during a bad cold.

This is known lasix 40mg price in canada as the occlusion effect and can be managed with earmold modifications or hearing aid circuit changes. Your own voice sounds too loud. When a hearing aid user complains their own voice sounds too loud, the earmold may need a larger vent.

Feedback or whistling lasix 40mg price in canada. If the vent in the earmold is too large or in the wrong place, sound can leak through and cause feedback. Your hearing healthcare professional can address this problem by attaching a small handle called a “canal lock” that will hold the earmold more securely in place, preventing feedback.

More. How to troubleshoot common hearing aid problems. Earmolds for noise exposure Non-hearing aid users may use earmolds, too.

Custom earplugs and earmolds for sound protection are a great way to protect your hearing from loud sounds at work or at play. Musicians, stock car racers and even some professional football teams use earmolds with an acoustical chamber that blocks most noise while still allowing the wearer to understand speech. Some swimmers use specialized earmolds designed to keep water out of their ear canals.

Hearing care professionals can help fit you with these types of earmolds, too. Taking care of your earmolds The earmold is an important part of your hearing instrument. Wipe it clean each night before you go to bed and let your hearing healthcare professional know if you ever encounter problems or discomfort.

If you see any debris in the earmold openings or in the tubing that runs through it, be sure to clean your hearing aid using the instructions given to you by your hearing care practitioner. If your hearing has changed or you suspect you may have hearing loss, make an appointment to have your hearing evaluated. Visit our online directory to find a hearing center and to read verified patient reviews on professionals in your community..

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What may interact with Lasix?

  • certain antibiotics given by injection
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  • lithium
  • medicines for diabetes
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  • medicines for high cholesterol like cholestyramine, clofibrate, or colestipol
  • medicines that relax muscles for surgery
  • NSAIDs, medicines for pain and inflammation like ibuprofen, naproxen, or indomethacin
  • phenytoin
  • steroid medicines like prednisone or cortisone
  • sucralfate

This list may not describe all possible interactions. Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. Some items may interact with your medicine.

Does lasix cause sweating

IntroductionSynthesis of Purchase propecia evidence provided by randomised controlled does lasix cause sweating trials (RCTs) is commonly used to develop clinical guidelines and make reimbursement decision for pharmacological interventions. While the dose of a drug is of central importance, meta-analyses that examine their efficacy and safety often does lasix cause sweating focus on comparing only agents or classes of drugs, ignoring potential variability due to different doses. As different dose schedules may result in considerable heterogeneity in efficacy and safety, one common approach is to restrict the database at certain dose range (e.g., the therapeutic dose), discard all studies outside that range and then examine the role of dose in a subgroup analysis for the lowest and the highest dose categories.1 This approach fails, however, to synthesise the whole relevant evidence. Alternatively, researchers might opt to perform many meta-analyses, each restricted to studies that does lasix cause sweating examine a particular drug-dose combination. This will inevitably result in many underpowered meta-analyses.In this paper, we present a recently developed evidence synthesis method of a dose–effect meta-analysis (DE-MA) approach does lasix cause sweating that offers a middle ground between ‘lumping’ all doses together into a single meta-analysis and ‘splitting’ them to many dose-specific meta-analyses.

In DE-MA, we model the changes in the drug effect along the range of all studied dosages. There are two common approaches to conduct does lasix cause sweating DE-MA. Two-stage and one-stage models. In the two-stage model, the dose–effect curve is estimated within each study and then synthesised across studies.2 3 These two steps are performed simultaneously in the one-stage model.4We first provide the statistical explanations of the two models, and then illustrate the models by using a collection of RCTs examining the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) antidepressants.5The analysis is implemented in R6 and is does lasix cause sweating made available along with dataset and the results on GitHub (https://github.com/htx-r/Dose-effect-MA-EBMH-article-).MethodsIn this section, we describe the two-stage DE-MA model with summarised data. Then we does lasix cause sweating present briefly the one-stage model.

Finally, we discuss other issues related to this topic, namely. Statistical testing does lasix cause sweating of dose–effect coefficients and how to assess heterogeneity and make predictions. The models which are illustrated here to conduct DE-MA have been implemented in various software packages, for example, the drmeta command (in Stata7) and the dosresmeta package8 (in R).6Dose–effect shape within a studyLet us consider the case of an RCT where several doses are examined (one dose per arm) denoted by where the index j enumerates the dose levels starting with zero. The outcome is measured in each arm on an additive scale (e.g., a does lasix cause sweating mean, a log-odds). The dose–effect model within a does lasix cause sweating study associates the change in the outcome (ie, the treatment effect) to the change in the dose.

Let us assume a trial like the one presented in table 1 that has a placebo arm, a dichotomous outcome and the changes in the outcome are measured using the odds ratio (logOR) of each dose level j relevant to a reference dose. Using the placebo arm as a reference (at dose , and assuming a linear association between logOR and dose, the dose–effect model isView this table:Table does lasix cause sweating 1 We present the data of Feighner et al study on the observed five dose levels. The data consist of the observed dose, the number of responses, the total number of participants, the odds does lasix cause sweating ratio (OR) and its 95% CI, log transformations of OR and its standard error (SE) The estimated coefficient β shows how much an increase in the dose will impact on the change in logOR.Typically, the referent dose is assigned to the zero or the minimal dose to make interpretation easier. The doses are centred around the referent dose so the relationship quantifies the change in relative effects. However, this centralisation induces correlation between the logORs in each study (as they are all estimated relative to the outcome of does lasix cause sweating the.

Such correlations should be estimated and accounted for using the Longnecker and Greenland method.2 9In practice, multiple changes in the dose–effect shape are expected so that the linear model is not often a realistic assumption. More flexible models are does lasix cause sweating needed to account for those changes10 such as restricted cubic spline (RCS). RCS is does lasix cause sweating a piecewise function. The dose spectrum is split into intervals (using some changepoints, called knots) and in each interval a cubic polynomial is fitted.11 Restrictions in the estimation of the polynomial coefficients are then imposed to ensure that they are connected and forming a smooth function which is linear in the two tails. The location does lasix cause sweating and the number of those knots determine the shape of the RCS.

The locations indicate intervals where changes in the shape might occur, and the number reflects how many such changes are anticipated. In general, does lasix cause sweating setting k knots creates a RCS model with regression coefficients. For identifiability, the minimum number of knots is does lasix cause sweating three and the dose–effect shape is. This function is a combination of linear and non linear transformations.11Of note, a two-stage approach requires that the study examines at least three dose-level data including the referent level and that enables estimating the two regression coefficients in the linear and spline (nonlinear, ) parts of the equation.Any type of function could be used in the dose–effect association. For study indicator i, the general form of the dose–effect model can be does lasix cause sweating written.

The term refers to the p dose–effect parameter and f denotes the dose–effect shape.Synthesis of dose–effect shapes across studiesConsider that we have fit the RCS model in k studies and we have obtained k sets of estimates ( ). Each pair of coefficients represents the shape of the dose–effect within each study does lasix cause sweating. Now, we does lasix cause sweating synthesise the shapes across studies by combining their coefficients. We may set a common underlying coefficient for all studies, for example, and (common-effect model). Alternatively, the underlying study-specific coefficients does lasix cause sweating can be assigned a two-dimensional normal distribution with mean and a variance–covariance matrix to reflect the heterogeneity across the studies (random-effects model).

In the general case, the dose–effect shape f involving p coefficients which are similarly synthesised using a multivariate normal distribution.What we describe above is does lasix cause sweating the two-stage approach. The dose–effect curves are estimated within each study and then synthesised across studies in two separate steps. This requires each does lasix cause sweating study to report non-referent doses at least as many as the number of the dose–effect coefficients. Otherwise, the coefficients will be non-identifiable and the study should be excluded from the analysis. For example, to does lasix cause sweating estimate a dose–effect quadratic shape or a RCS with three knots, two coefficients need to be estimated and hence each study needs to report at least two logORs (which means at least three dose levels).

Studies that report less dose does lasix cause sweating levels, shall be excluded from the synthesis.In the one-stage approach, within and across study estimation of the shape are performed simultaneously.4 This allows for borrowing information across studies and the study-specific coefficients can be estimated even if the study itself does not report the required number of doses. This means that, with the one-stage approach, we can include in the synthesis studies that report only one logOR (two dose levels) even if we want to estimate RCS.There are different ways to present the results from the DE-MAs. The dose–effect shape as a function of does lasix cause sweating any dose can be presented in graphical or tabular form by plugging-in the dose values and the estimated coefficients in the assumed function (see figures 1 and 2). Another useful presentation of the results could be to show absolute estimates of the outcome, such as estimates of probability for efficacy at any given dose, see figure 3. This can be done in two does lasix cause sweating simple steps.

First, we estimate the absolute probability of the response at the reference dose (e.g., zero) and then we combine this with the estimated relative treatment effect at each dose (e.g., with the estimated logOR) to obtain the absolute outcome (e.g., does lasix cause sweating the probability to respond at an active dose level).The estimated dose–effect curves of citalopram in Feighner et al study. The fluoxetine-equivalent doses are presented versus the odds ratio with two different dose–effect shapes. The linear model in grey (dashed) and the restricted cubic does lasix cause sweating spline (with knots at 20.0, 23.6 and 44.4) in red (solid). The 95% confidence bands does lasix cause sweating are shaded around each curve." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 The estimated dose–effect curves of citalopram in Feighner et al study. The fluoxetine-equivalent doses are presented versus the odds ratio with two different dose–effect shapes.

The linear model in grey (dashed) and the restricted cubic spline (with knots at 20.0, 23.6 and 44.4) in does lasix cause sweating red (solid). The 95% confidence bands are shaded around each curve.Dose-effect curves for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These curves are estimated using the restricted does lasix cause sweating cubic spline function where knots are set at doses 20.0, 23.6 and 44.4 mg/day. For data synthesis, we apply a one-stage (grey, does lasix cause sweating solid) and two-stage (red, dashed) approaches.The 95% confidence bands are shaded around each curve. SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Dose-effect curves for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

These curves are estimated using the does lasix cause sweating restricted cubic spline function where knots are set at doses 20.0, 23.6 and 44.4 mg/day. For data synthesis, we apply a one-stage (grey, solid) and two-stage (red, dashed) approaches.The 95% confidence bands are shaded around each curve. SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.The synthesised does lasix cause sweating dose–effect curves across studies of SSRI. The fluoxetine-equivalent doses are presented does lasix cause sweating versus the predicted absolute effect. The dose–effect function is the restricted cubic spline (with knots at 20.0, 23.6 and 44.4).

The solid line represents the mean absolute does lasix cause sweating effect and the shaded area is its 95% confidence bands. The dashed does lasix cause sweating (horizontal) line represents the placebo absolute effect at 37.7%. SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 The synthesised dose–effect curves across studies of SSRI. The fluoxetine-equivalent does lasix cause sweating doses are presented versus the predicted absolute effect. The dose–effect function is the restricted cubic spline (with knots at 20.0, 23.6 and 44.4).

The solid line represents the mean absolute effect and does lasix cause sweating the shaded area is its 95% confidence bands. The dashed (horizontal) line represents the placebo does lasix cause sweating absolute effect at 37.7%. SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.HeterogeneityHeterogeneity in the study-specific coefficients introduces heterogeneity in the relative treatment effects, which is what we will call heterogeneity from now on. It is a function of the dose and can be measured by the variance partition coefficient (VPC).4 The VPC is a study-specific and dose-specific which shows the percentage of heterogeneity out of the total variability specific to the study does lasix cause sweating. VPC can be computed for each non-referent dose in each study.

An average does lasix cause sweating of the study-specific VPCs by dose level could be seen as a dose-specific I2. It is useful to plot the study-specific VPCs (as %) against the dose levels to gauge does lasix cause sweating the level of heterogeneity.ResultsWe illustrate the models by re-analysing a dataset about the role of dose in the efficacy of SSRIs. Drug-specific doses are converted into fluoxetine-equivalents (mg/day) using a validated formula.5 The outcome is response to treatment defined as 50% reduction in symptoms. The data include 60 RCTs, which recruited 15 174 participants in 145 different dose arms (see online supplemental appendix figure 1, 2 and table 1).Supplemental materialDose–effect model within a studyTo exemplify the process, does lasix cause sweating we consider the study by Feighner et al.13 Table 1 presents the data at the five examined dose arms. The four logORs are estimated as the odds of each non-referent category (10, 20, 40, 60 mg/day) relative to the odds in the referent dose (Placebo, 0 mg/day).

The study-specific estimated logORs and their SEs can does lasix cause sweating be used to fit a linear dose–effect model.A log linear trend is then estimated based on the aggregate data presented by Feighner et al (figure 1).13 The Greenland and Longnecker method is used to back estimate the covariance of these four empirical logORs used as dependent variable of the linear dose–effect model.The linear dose–effect coefficient is estimated at 0.0156 (95% CI 0.0083 to 0.0230) on the log scale. The OR at dose 10 to be which means OR increases by for a 10-unit increase in dose.Biologically, it is quite unrealistic to assume a constant effect of fluoxetine-equivalents on the relative odds of the outcome does lasix cause sweating. We expect the shape to increase up to a dose level and then flatten out. The exact value of the dose, at does lasix cause sweating which the dose–effect model is levelling out, is unknown. And it would be good to specify a dose–effect model that is able to does lasix cause sweating capture this plausible mechanism.For this reason, we use a RCS function, rather than a linear function, for fluoxetine-equivalents.

RCSs are generated using three knots at 20, 23.6 and 44.4 dose levels which represent the 10%, 50% and 90% percentiles, of the observed non-zero dose distribution. A Wald-test indicates does lasix cause sweating large incompatibility between this study and the hypothesis of a linear function ( , p =0.033). Figure 1 indicates a large positive dose–effect up to 30 mg/day of fluoxetine-equivalents and no increase in the effect beyond that value.The fact that the shape is estimated from just a single study results in a large uncertainty around the RCS curve.Synthesis of dose–effect shapes across studiesWe first synthesise the dose–effect coefficients from all studies assuming a random-effects two-stage model. For RCS in the two-stage model, only 17 studies can be synthesised (those with at least does lasix cause sweating three dose levels). The results are does lasix cause sweating depicted in figure 2.

The estimated linear coefficient at 0.0186 (95% CI 0.0118 to 0.0253) and the spline coefficient is −0.0628 (95% CI −0.0876 to −0.0379).The random-effects one-stage model can include all 60 studies. The estimated linear and spline coefficients are very close to those from the does lasix cause sweating two-stage model ( 0.0189 (95% CI 0.0146 to 0.0232) and −0.0621 (95% CI −0.0814 to −0.0428)) which is also shown in the agreement of the two shapes in figure 2. The important difference between the results from the two approaches is that the confidence bands are tighter from the one-stage due to including double as many studies as the two-stage approach does.In figure 3, we show the probability of response as a function of the dose as estimated from the meta-analysis. After meta-analysing all placebo arms, the probability of response to placebo is estimated at 37.7% (dashed line in does lasix cause sweating figure 3). Then, increase of the dose up to does lasix cause sweating 30 mg/day of fluoxetine-equivalent results in 50% probability to respond.

Beyond 40 mg/day, the probability of response flattens out.For the two-stage and the one-stage models, the statistical hypothesis can be rejected with estimated p-values less than 0.001 for both the linear and spline coefficients. This can be seen as a statistical evidence that the linear model hypothesis is does lasix cause sweating rejected, and the RCS is preferable with both the linear and the spline part. The hypothesis of no dose-effect association is not also accepted (p-value<0.001).Figure 4 shows the variance partition component along with the observed doses. At dose 20 mg/day, the total variability that is attributed solely to heterogeneity ranges between does lasix cause sweating 4% and 40%, which is considered to be moderate. Overall, the does lasix cause sweating majority of VPC values does not exceed 60%.The variance partition component of each observed dose (non-referent doses in each study) presented in circles.

Each circle represents a study. The fitted line is LOWESS curve." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 4 The variance partition component of each observed dose (non-referent doses in each study) presented does lasix cause sweating in circles. Each circle represents a does lasix cause sweating study. The fitted line is LOWESS curve.DiscussionResearchers can conduct a DE-MA by following two steps. The first step is to estimate a dose–effect curve within each study does lasix cause sweating.

The second step is to synthesise those curves across studies. These two steps can be performed either separately (two-stage model)2 does lasix cause sweating 3 or simultaneously (one-stage model).4 In this article, we detail these two models, alongside considerations for statistical testing of the dose–effect parameters, estimation of heterogeneity and presentation of the results. We use the does lasix cause sweating presented models to re-analyse RCT data comparing various SSRIs in terms of response .We describe the models for a dichotomous outcome and the effect size we used as odds ratio. However, the model can be adapted easily to other measures like risk ratio and hazard ratio. Likewise, the model can be employed does lasix cause sweating with other data types such as continuous outcome with (standardised) mean differences.14Recently, two extensions of the presented models have been introduced in the literature.

The one-stage and two-stage models have been extended to a Bayesian setting15 to take advantage of its great flexibility. One of these advantages is to implement the exact binomial distribution for binary data, instead of the approximate normal distribution for does lasix cause sweating the relative treatment effect in the frequentist settings. The assumption of a normal distribution can be hard to meet when the sample size is small as shown in recent simulations.15 The dose–effect model has been also extended to network meta-analysis which allows does lasix cause sweating for modelling the dose–effect relationship simultaneously to more than two agents.16 17Researchers should be careful when they report the findings of DE-MA and follow the existing reporting guidelines. Xu et al proposed a checklist with 33 reporting items for such analysis.18 The majority of these items (27) come from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement after some modifications.19 The other six items are added from Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist to cover key considerations of observational studies.20 They used the proposed checklist to assess quality of reporting in the published DE-MAs. They found that while reporting in the introduction and results was on average does lasix cause sweating good, further improvements are required in reporting methods.

Xu and colleagues also studied the association between reporting quality and study does lasix cause sweating characteristics. They observed that studies including more authors or methodologist have a better reporting quality. They conclude that while the quality of reporting has improved over the years, further refinement in the reporting checklists is required.The main does lasix cause sweating challenge in DE-MA is how to define the dose–effect shape. The shape selection can be guided by previous studies (such as dose-finding studies), clinical experience and biological plausibility informed by pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. Additional evidence does lasix cause sweating could be provided by considering the goodness of fitness measures of various shapes21 or via graphical inspection of the data.

Yet, the RCS model has does lasix cause sweating sufficient flexibility to capture different shapes. In our case study, using only three knots was sufficient to capture the expected drug behaviour SSRIs while requires only three dose levels to be reported in at least one study. This makes RCS an attractive choice for the majority of analyses.18 However, the number and location of knots should be chosen carefully based on the anticipated drug behaviour and the clinical knowledge.Researchers may encounter additional does lasix cause sweating challenges if observational studies are synthesised instead of RCTs as it was the case in this paper. First, defining the dependent and independent variables in observational studies could be difficult. For example, if we does lasix cause sweating want to evaluate the association between the alcohol consumption and the use of tobacco, the shape will depend on whether alcohol is set as a dependent or independent variable.

Second, categorisation of non-pharmacological exposures (such as environmental exposure, diet and so on), which are often the focus of observational studies, is often difficult. There might be open-ended categories to which assignment of a specific dose is not obvious (e.g., smoking two packages per day and above) and exposure categories might be differently defined across studies.22 23 These challenges could induce additional uncertainty in the analysis. In such cases, sensitivity analysis is recommended to investigate the robustness of the DE-MA results.In conclusion, the DE-MA enables clinicians to understand how the effect of a drug changes as a function of its dose. Such analysis should be conducted in practice using the one-stage model that incorporates evidence from all available studies.Research-active clinical services have lower mortality rates and produce higher quality care outcomes, however, recruiting participants to clinical research in the National Health System (NHS) remains challenging.1 A recent study, assessing the feasibility of clinical staff electronically documenting patient consent to discuss research participation, indicated very low patient uptake, limiting its effectiveness as a strategy for improving access to research.2 A follow-on study comparing this ‘opt-in’ approach with an ‘opt-out’ approach, whereby patients are informed about research opportunities unless they indicate otherwise, found that patients and staff favoured an ‘opt-out’ approach and wanted research to be more accessible.3Subsequently, in August 2021, Count me In was developed and launched within Oxford Health ….

IntroductionSynthesis of evidence provided by randomised controlled trials (RCTs) lasix 40mg price in canada is commonly used to develop clinical guidelines and make reimbursement decision for pharmacological interventions. While the dose of a drug is of central importance, meta-analyses that examine their efficacy lasix 40mg price in canada and safety often focus on comparing only agents or classes of drugs, ignoring potential variability due to different doses. As different dose schedules may result in considerable heterogeneity in efficacy and safety, one common approach is to restrict the database at certain dose range (e.g., the therapeutic dose), discard all studies outside that range and then examine the role of dose in a subgroup analysis for the lowest and the highest dose categories.1 This approach fails, however, to synthesise the whole relevant evidence.

Alternatively, researchers lasix 40mg price in canada might opt to perform many meta-analyses, each restricted to studies that examine a particular drug-dose combination. This will inevitably result in many underpowered meta-analyses.In this paper, we present a recently developed lasix 40mg price in canada evidence synthesis method of a dose–effect meta-analysis (DE-MA) approach that offers a middle ground between ‘lumping’ all doses together into a single meta-analysis and ‘splitting’ them to many dose-specific meta-analyses. In DE-MA, we model the changes in the drug effect along the range of all studied dosages.

There are lasix 40mg price in canada two common approaches to conduct DE-MA. Two-stage and one-stage models. In the two-stage model, the dose–effect curve is estimated within each study and then synthesised across studies.2 3 These two steps are performed simultaneously in the one-stage model.4We first provide the statistical explanations of the two models, and then illustrate the models by using a collection of RCTs examining the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) antidepressants.5The analysis is implemented in R6 and is made available along with dataset and the results on GitHub (https://github.com/htx-r/Dose-effect-MA-EBMH-article-).MethodsIn this section, we describe the two-stage lasix 40mg price in canada DE-MA model with summarised data.

Then we lasix 40mg price in canada present briefly the one-stage model. Finally, we discuss other issues related to this topic, namely. Statistical testing of dose–effect coefficients and how to assess lasix 40mg price in canada heterogeneity and make predictions.

The models which are illustrated here to conduct DE-MA have been implemented in various software packages, for example, the drmeta command (in Stata7) and the dosresmeta package8 (in R).6Dose–effect shape within a studyLet us consider the case of an RCT where several doses are examined (one dose per arm) denoted by where the index j enumerates the dose levels starting with zero. The outcome is measured in lasix 40mg price in canada each arm on an additive scale (e.g., a mean, a log-odds). The dose–effect model within a study associates the change in the outcome lasix 40mg price in canada (ie, the treatment effect) to the change in the dose.

Let us assume a trial like the one presented in table 1 that has a placebo arm, a dichotomous outcome and the changes in the outcome are measured using the odds ratio (logOR) of each dose level j relevant to a reference dose. Using the placebo arm as a reference (at dose , and assuming a linear association between logOR and dose, the lasix 40mg price in canada dose–effect model isView this table:Table 1 We present the data of Feighner et al study on the observed five dose levels. The data consist of the observed dose, the number of lasix 40mg price in canada responses, the total number of participants, the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% CI, log transformations of OR and its standard error (SE) The estimated coefficient β shows how much an increase in the dose will impact on the change in logOR.Typically, the referent dose is assigned to the zero or the minimal dose to make interpretation easier.

The doses are centred around the referent dose so the relationship quantifies the change in relative effects. However, this centralisation induces correlation between the logORs in each study (as they are all estimated lasix 40mg price in canada relative to the outcome of the. Such correlations should be estimated and accounted for using the Longnecker and Greenland method.2 9In practice, multiple changes in the dose–effect shape are expected so that the linear model is not often a realistic assumption.

More flexible models are needed to lasix 40mg price in canada account for those changes10 such as restricted cubic spline (RCS). RCS is a lasix 40mg price in canada piecewise function. The dose spectrum is split into intervals (using some changepoints, called knots) and in each interval a cubic polynomial is fitted.11 Restrictions in the estimation of the polynomial coefficients are then imposed to ensure that they are connected and forming a smooth function which is linear in the two tails.

The location and the number of those knots determine lasix 40mg price in canada the shape of the RCS. The locations indicate intervals where changes in the shape might occur, and the number reflects how many such changes are anticipated. In general, setting k knots creates a RCS model with regression lasix 40mg price in canada coefficients.

For identifiability, the minimum number of knots is three and the dose–effect shape is lasix 40mg price in canada. This function is a combination of linear and non linear transformations.11Of note, a two-stage approach requires that the study examines at least three dose-level data including the referent level and that enables estimating the two regression coefficients in the linear and spline (nonlinear, ) parts of the equation.Any type of function could be used in the dose–effect association. For study indicator i, the general form of the dose–effect model lasix 40mg price in canada can be written.

The term refers to the p dose–effect parameter and f denotes the dose–effect shape.Synthesis of dose–effect shapes across studiesConsider that we have fit the RCS model in k studies and we have obtained k sets of estimates ( ). Each pair of coefficients represents the shape of the dose–effect lasix 40mg price in canada within each study. Now, we synthesise the shapes lasix 40mg price in canada across studies by combining their coefficients.

We may set a common underlying coefficient for all studies, for example, and (common-effect model). Alternatively, the underlying study-specific coefficients can be assigned a two-dimensional normal distribution with lasix 40mg price in canada mean and a variance–covariance matrix to reflect the heterogeneity across the studies (random-effects model). In the general case, the dose–effect shape f involving p coefficients which are similarly synthesised using a multivariate normal distribution.What we describe above is the two-stage lasix 40mg price in canada approach.

The dose–effect curves are estimated within each study and then synthesised across studies in two separate steps. This requires lasix 40mg price in canada each study to report non-referent doses at least as many as the number of the dose–effect coefficients. Otherwise, the coefficients will be non-identifiable and the study should be excluded from the analysis.

For example, to estimate a dose–effect lasix 40mg price in canada quadratic shape or a RCS with three knots, two coefficients need to be estimated and hence each study needs to report at least two logORs (which means at least three dose levels). Studies that report less dose levels, shall be excluded from the synthesis.In the one-stage lasix 40mg price in canada approach, within and across study estimation of the shape are performed simultaneously.4 This allows for borrowing information across studies and the study-specific coefficients can be estimated even if the study itself does not report the required number of doses. This means that, with the one-stage approach, we can include in the synthesis studies that report only one logOR (two dose levels) even if we want to estimate RCS.There are different ways to present the results from the DE-MAs.

The dose–effect shape as a function of any dose can be presented in graphical or tabular form by plugging-in the dose values and lasix 40mg price in canada the estimated coefficients in the assumed function (see figures 1 and 2). Another useful presentation of the results could be to show absolute estimates of the outcome, such as estimates of probability for efficacy at any given dose, see figure 3. This can be lasix 40mg price in canada done in two simple steps.

First, we estimate the absolute probability of the response at the reference dose (e.g., zero) and then we combine this with the estimated relative treatment effect at each dose (e.g., with the estimated logOR) to lasix 40mg price in canada obtain the absolute outcome (e.g., the probability to respond at an active dose level).The estimated dose–effect curves of citalopram in Feighner et al study. The fluoxetine-equivalent doses are presented versus the odds ratio with two different dose–effect shapes. The linear model in grey (dashed) and the restricted cubic spline (with lasix 40mg price in canada knots at 20.0, 23.6 and 44.4) in red (solid).

The 95% confidence bands are shaded around each curve." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 The estimated dose–effect curves of citalopram lasix 40mg price in canada in Feighner et al study. The fluoxetine-equivalent doses are presented versus the odds ratio with two different dose–effect shapes. The linear lasix 40mg price in canada model in grey (dashed) and the restricted cubic spline (with knots at 20.0, 23.6 and 44.4) in red (solid).

The 95% confidence bands are shaded around each curve.Dose-effect curves for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These curves are estimated using the restricted cubic spline function lasix 40mg price in canada where knots are set at doses 20.0, 23.6 and 44.4 mg/day. For data synthesis, we apply a one-stage (grey, solid) and two-stage (red, dashed) approaches.The 95% lasix 40mg price in canada confidence bands are shaded around each curve.

SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Dose-effect curves for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These curves are estimated using the restricted cubic spline function where knots are set at lasix 40mg price in canada doses 20.0, 23.6 and 44.4 mg/day. For data synthesis, we apply a one-stage (grey, solid) and two-stage (red, dashed) approaches.The 95% confidence bands are shaded around each curve.

SSRI, selective lasix 40mg price in canada serotonin reuptake inhibitor.The synthesised dose–effect curves across studies of SSRI. The fluoxetine-equivalent doses are presented versus the predicted absolute effect lasix 40mg price in canada. The dose–effect function is the restricted cubic spline (with knots at 20.0, 23.6 and 44.4).

The solid line represents the mean absolute effect and the lasix 40mg price in canada shaded area is its 95% confidence bands. The dashed (horizontal) line represents lasix 40mg price in canada the placebo absolute effect at 37.7%. SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 The synthesised dose–effect curves across studies of SSRI.

The fluoxetine-equivalent doses are presented versus the predicted lasix 40mg price in canada absolute effect. The dose–effect function is the restricted cubic spline (with knots at 20.0, 23.6 and 44.4). The solid line represents the mean absolute effect and lasix 40mg price in canada the shaded area is its 95% confidence bands.

The dashed lasix 40mg price in canada (horizontal) line represents the placebo absolute effect at 37.7%. SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.HeterogeneityHeterogeneity in the study-specific coefficients introduces heterogeneity in the relative treatment effects, which is what we will call heterogeneity from now on. It is a function of the dose and can be measured by the variance partition coefficient (VPC).4 The VPC is a study-specific and dose-specific which shows the percentage lasix 40mg price in canada of heterogeneity out of the total variability specific to the study.

VPC can be computed for each non-referent dose in each study. An average of the study-specific VPCs lasix 40mg price in canada by dose level could be seen as a dose-specific I2. It is useful to plot the study-specific VPCs (as %) against the dose levels to gauge the level of heterogeneity.ResultsWe illustrate the models by re-analysing a dataset about the role of dose in the lasix 40mg price in canada efficacy of SSRIs.

Drug-specific doses are converted into fluoxetine-equivalents (mg/day) using a validated formula.5 The outcome is response to treatment defined as 50% reduction in symptoms. The data include 60 RCTs, which recruited 15 174 participants in 145 different dose arms (see online supplemental appendix figure 1, 2 and table 1).Supplemental materialDose–effect model within a studyTo exemplify the process, we consider the study by Feighner et al.13 Table 1 presents lasix 40mg price in canada the data at the five examined dose arms. The four logORs are estimated as the odds of each non-referent category (10, 20, 40, 60 mg/day) relative to the odds in the referent dose (Placebo, 0 mg/day).

The study-specific estimated logORs and their SEs can be used to fit a linear dose–effect model.A log linear trend is then estimated based on the aggregate data presented by Feighner et al (figure 1).13 The Greenland and Longnecker method is used to back estimate the covariance of lasix 40mg price in canada these four empirical logORs used as dependent variable of the linear dose–effect model.The linear dose–effect coefficient is estimated at 0.0156 (95% CI 0.0083 to 0.0230) on the log scale. The OR at dose 10 to be which means OR lasix 40mg price in canada increases by for a 10-unit increase in dose.Biologically, it is quite unrealistic to assume a constant effect of fluoxetine-equivalents on the relative odds of the outcome. We expect the shape to increase up to a dose level and then flatten out.

The exact lasix 40mg price in canada value of the dose, at which the dose–effect model is levelling out, is unknown. And it would be good to specify a dose–effect model that is able to capture this plausible mechanism.For this reason, we use a RCS lasix 40mg price in canada function, rather than a linear function, for fluoxetine-equivalents. RCSs are generated using three knots at 20, 23.6 and 44.4 dose levels which represent the 10%, 50% and 90% percentiles, of the observed non-zero dose distribution.

A Wald-test indicates large incompatibility lasix 40mg price in canada between this study and the hypothesis of a linear function ( , p =0.033). Figure 1 indicates a large positive dose–effect up to 30 mg/day of fluoxetine-equivalents and no increase in the effect beyond that value.The fact that the shape is estimated from just a single study results in a large uncertainty around the RCS curve.Synthesis of dose–effect shapes across studiesWe first synthesise the dose–effect coefficients from all studies assuming a random-effects two-stage model. For RCS lasix 40mg price in canada in the two-stage model, only 17 studies can be synthesised (those with at least three dose levels).

The results are lasix 40mg price in canada depicted in figure 2. The estimated linear coefficient at 0.0186 (95% CI 0.0118 to 0.0253) and the spline coefficient is −0.0628 (95% CI −0.0876 to −0.0379).The random-effects one-stage model can include all 60 studies. The estimated linear and spline coefficients are very close to those from the lasix 40mg price in canada two-stage model ( 0.0189 (95% CI 0.0146 to 0.0232) and −0.0621 (95% CI −0.0814 to −0.0428)) which is also shown in the agreement of the two shapes in figure 2.

The important difference between the results from the two approaches is that the confidence bands are tighter from the one-stage due to including double as many studies as the two-stage approach does.In figure 3, we show the probability of response as a function of the dose as estimated from the meta-analysis. After meta-analysing all placebo arms, lasix 40mg price in canada the probability of response to placebo is estimated at 37.7% (dashed line in figure 3). Then, increase of the dose up to 30 mg/day of fluoxetine-equivalent lasix 40mg price in canada results in 50% probability to respond.

Beyond 40 mg/day, the probability of response flattens out.For the two-stage and the one-stage models, the statistical hypothesis can be rejected with estimated p-values less than 0.001 for both the linear and spline coefficients. This can be seen as a statistical evidence that the linear model hypothesis is rejected, and the RCS is preferable with both the linear and the lasix 40mg price in canada spline part. The hypothesis of no dose-effect association is not also accepted (p-value<0.001).Figure 4 shows the variance partition component along with the observed doses.

At dose 20 mg/day, the total variability that is attributed solely to lasix 40mg price in canada heterogeneity ranges between 4% and 40%, which is considered to be moderate. Overall, the majority of VPC lasix 40mg price in canada values does not exceed 60%.The variance partition component of each observed dose (non-referent doses in each study) presented in circles. Each circle represents a study.

The fitted line is LOWESS curve." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 4 The variance partition lasix 40mg price in canada component of each observed dose (non-referent doses in each study) presented in circles. Each circle lasix 40mg price in canada represents a study. The fitted line is LOWESS curve.DiscussionResearchers can conduct a DE-MA by following two steps.

The first step is lasix 40mg price in canada to estimate a dose–effect curve within each study. The second step is to synthesise those curves across studies. These two steps can be performed either separately (two-stage model)2 3 or simultaneously (one-stage model).4 In this article, we detail these two models, alongside considerations for statistical testing of the dose–effect parameters, estimation of heterogeneity and presentation lasix 40mg price in canada of the results.

We use the presented models to re-analyse RCT data comparing various SSRIs in terms of response .We describe the models for a dichotomous outcome and the effect size we used lasix 40mg price in canada as odds ratio. However, the model can be adapted easily to other measures like risk ratio and hazard ratio. Likewise, the model can be employed with other data types such as continuous outcome with (standardised) mean differences.14Recently, two extensions of the presented models have been introduced in lasix 40mg price in canada the literature.

The one-stage and two-stage models have been extended to a Bayesian setting15 to take advantage of its great flexibility. One of these advantages is to implement the exact binomial distribution for binary data, instead of the approximate normal distribution for the relative treatment effect in the frequentist lasix 40mg price in canada settings. The assumption of a normal distribution can be hard to meet when the sample size is small as shown in recent simulations.15 The dose–effect model has been also extended to network meta-analysis which allows for modelling the dose–effect relationship simultaneously to more than two agents.16 17Researchers should be careful when they lasix 40mg price in canada report the findings of DE-MA and follow the existing reporting guidelines.

Xu et al proposed a checklist with 33 reporting items for such analysis.18 The majority of these items (27) come from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement after some modifications.19 The other six items are added from Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist to cover key considerations of observational studies.20 They used the proposed checklist to assess quality of reporting in the published DE-MAs. They found that while reporting in the introduction and results was lasix 40mg price in canada on average good, further improvements are required in reporting methods. Xu and colleagues also studied lasix 40mg price in canada the association between reporting quality and study characteristics.

They observed that studies including more authors or methodologist have a better reporting quality. They conclude that while the quality of reporting has improved over the years, further refinement in the reporting checklists lasix 40mg price in canada is required.The main challenge in DE-MA is how to define the dose–effect shape. The shape selection can be guided by previous studies (such as dose-finding studies), clinical experience and biological plausibility informed by pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies.

Additional evidence could be provided by considering the goodness of fitness measures of various shapes21 or via graphical inspection of the data lasix 40mg price in canada. Yet, the RCS model has sufficient lasix 40mg price in canada flexibility to capture different shapes. In our case study, using only three knots was sufficient to capture the expected drug behaviour SSRIs while requires only three dose levels to be reported in at least one study.

This makes RCS an attractive choice for the majority of analyses.18 However, the number and location lasix 40mg price in canada of knots should be chosen carefully based on the anticipated drug behaviour and the clinical knowledge.Researchers may encounter additional challenges if observational studies are synthesised instead of RCTs as it was the case in this paper. First, defining the dependent and independent variables in observational studies could be difficult. For example, if we want to evaluate the association between the alcohol lasix 40mg price in canada consumption and the use of tobacco, the shape will depend on whether alcohol is set as a dependent or independent variable.

Second, categorisation of non-pharmacological exposures (such as environmental exposure, diet and lasix 40mg price in canada so on), which are often the focus of observational studies, is often difficult. There might be open-ended categories to which assignment of a specific dose is not obvious (e.g., smoking two packages per day and above) and exposure categories might be differently defined across studies.22 23 These challenges could induce additional uncertainty in the analysis. In such cases, sensitivity analysis is recommended to investigate the robustness of the DE-MA results.In conclusion, the DE-MA enables clinicians to understand how the effect of a drug changes as a function of its dose.

Such analysis should be conducted in practice using the one-stage model that incorporates evidence from all available studies.Research-active clinical services have lower mortality rates and produce higher quality care outcomes, however, recruiting participants to clinical research in the National Health System (NHS) remains challenging.1 A recent study, assessing the feasibility of clinical staff electronically documenting patient consent to discuss research participation, indicated very low patient uptake, limiting its effectiveness as a strategy for improving access to research.2 A follow-on study comparing this ‘opt-in’ approach with an ‘opt-out’ approach, whereby patients are informed about research opportunities unless they indicate otherwise, found that patients and staff favoured an ‘opt-out’ approach and wanted research to be more accessible.3Subsequently, in August 2021, Count me In was developed and launched within Oxford Health ….

Can you buy lasix over the counter usa

Some consumers may can you buy lasix over the counter usa be eligible for the Medicare Insurance Premium Payment (MIPP) Program, instead of MSP. See this article for more info. TOPICS COVERED IN THIS ARTICLE 1.

No Asset can you buy lasix over the counter usa Limit 1A. Summary Chart of MSP Programs with current income limits 2. Income Limits &.

Rules can you buy lasix over the counter usa and Household Size 3. The Three MSP Programs - What are they and how are they Different?. 4.

FOUR Special Benefits can you buy lasix over the counter usa of MSP Programs. Back Door to Extra Help with Part D MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B - and allow enrollment in Part B year-round outside of the short Annual Enrollment Period No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover Payment of Expenses Paid by MSP Food Stamps/SNAP not reduced by Decreased Medical Expenses when Enroll in MSP - at least temporarily 5. Enrolling in an MSP - Automatic Enrollment &.

Applications for People who Have Medicare WHO IS AUTOMATICALLY ENROLLED IN AN MSP Applying for MSP Directly with Local Medicaid Program - including those who already have Medicaid through local Medicaid program but need MSP, and those newly applying for can you buy lasix over the counter usa MSP Enrolling in an MSP if you have Medicaid and Just Became Eligible for Medicare MIPPA - SSA Notifies Social Security recipients that they may be eligible for MSP based on their income. 6. Enrolling in an MSP for People age 65+ who Do Not Qualify for Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" 7.

What Happens After MSP Approved - How Part B Premium is Paid 8 Special Rules for QMBs can you buy lasix over the counter usa - How Medicare Cost-Sharing Works 1. NO ASSET LIMIT!. Since April 1, 2008, none of the three MSP programs have resource limits in New York -- which means many Medicare beneficiaries who might not qualify for Medicaid because of excess resources can qualify for an MSP.

1.A can you buy lasix over the counter usa. SUMMARY CHART OF MSP BENEFITS QMB SLIMB QI-1 Eligibility ASSET LIMIT NO LIMIT IN NEW YORK STATE INCOME LIMIT (2022) Single Couple Single Couple Single Couple $1,133 $1,526 $1,359 $1,831 $1,529 $2,060 Federal Poverty Level 100% FPL 100 – 120% FPL 120 – 135% FPL Benefits Pays Monthly Part B premium?. YES, and also Part A premium if did not have enough work quarters and meets citizenship requirement.

See “Part A Buy-In” YES YES Pays Part A can you buy lasix over the counter usa &. B deductibles &. Co-insurance YES - with limitations NO NO Retroactive to Filing of Application?.

Yes - Benefits can you buy lasix over the counter usa begin the month after the month of the MSP application. 18 NYCRR §360-7.8(b)(5) Yes – Retroactive to 3rd month before month of application, if eligible in prior months Yes – may be retroactive to 3rd month before month of applica-tion, but only within the current calendar year. (No retro for January application).

See can you buy lasix over the counter usa GIS 07 MA 027. Can Enroll in MSP and Medicaid at Same Time?. YES YES NO!.

Must choose can you buy lasix over the counter usa between QI-1 and Medicaid. Cannot have both, not even Medicaid with a spend-down. 2.

INCOME can you buy lasix over the counter usa LIMITS and RULES Each of the three MSP programs has different income eligibility requirements and provides different benefits. The income limits are tied to the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). The figures in the chart are based on a document issued by HRA in March 2022 (Box 7) based on the 2022 FPL.

See 2022 can you buy lasix over the counter usa Fact Sheet on MSP in NYS by Medicare Rights Center ENGLISH SPANISH Income is determined by the same methodology as is used for determining in eligibility for SSI The rules for counting income for SSI-related (Aged 65+, Blind, or Disabled) Medicaid recipients, borrowed from the SSI program, apply to the MSP program, except for the new rules about counting household size for married couples. N.Y. Soc.

Serv. L. 367-a(3)(c)(2), NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7, 89-ADM-7 p.7.

Gross income is counted, although there are certain types of income that are disregarded. The most common income disregards, also known as deductions, include. (a) The first $20 of your &.

Your spouse's monthly income, earned or unearned ($20 per couple max). (b) SSI EARNED INCOME DISREGARDS. * The first $65 of monthly wages of you and your spouse, * One-half of the remaining monthly wages (after the $65 is deducted).

* Other work incentives including PASS plans, impairment related work expenses (IRWEs), blind work expenses, etc. For information on these deductions, see The Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities (MBI-WPD) and other guides in this article -- though written for the MBI-WPD, the work incentives apply to all Medicaid programs, including MSP, for people age 65+, disabled or blind. (c) monthly cost of any health insurance premiums but NOT the Part B premium, since Medicaid will now pay this premium (may deduct Medigap supplemental policies, vision, dental, or long term care insurance premiums, and the Part D premium but only to the extent the premium exceeds the Extra Help benchmark amount) (d) Food stamps not counted.

You can get a more comprehensive listing of the SSI-related income disregards on the Medicaid income disregards chart. As for all benefit programs based on financial need, it is usually advantageous to be considered a larger household, because the income limit is higher. The above chart shows that Households of TWO have a higher income limit than households of ONE.

The MSP programs use the same rules as Medicaid does for the Disabled, Aged and Blind (DAB) which are borrowed from the SSI program for Medicaid recipients in the “SSI-related category.” Under these rules, a household can be only ONE or TWO. 18 NYCRR 360-4.2. See DAB Household Size Chart.

Married persons can sometimes be ONE or TWO depending on arcane rules, which can force a Medicare beneficiary to be limited to the income limit for ONE person even though his spouse who is under 65 and not disabled has no income, and is supported by the client applying for an MSP. EXAMPLE. Bob's Social Security is $1300/month.

He is age 67 and has Medicare. His wife, Nancy, is age 62 and is not disabled and does not work. Under the old rule, Bob was not eligible for an MSP because his income was above the Income limit for One, even though it was well under the Couple limit.

In 2010, NYS DOH modified its rules so that all married individuals will be considered a household size of TWO. DOH GIS 10 MA 10 Medicare Savings Program Household Size, June 4, 2010. This rule for household size is an exception to the rule applying SSI budgeting rules to the MSP program.

Under these rules, Bob is now eligible for an MSP. When is One Better than Two?. Of course, there may be couples where the non-applying spouse's income is too high, and disqualifies the applying spouse from an MSP.

In such cases, "spousal refusal" may be used SSL 366.3(a). (Link is to NYC HRA form, can be adapted for other counties). In NYC, if you have a Medicaid case with HRA, instead of submitting an MSP application, you only need to complete and submit MAP-751W (check off "Medicare Savings Program Evaluation") and fax to (917) 639-0837.

(The MAP-751W is also posted in languages other than English in this link. (Updated 4/14/2021.)) 3. The Three Medicare Savings Programs - what are they and how are they different?.

1. Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB). The QMB program provides the most comprehensive benefits.

Available to those with incomes at or below 100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), the QMB program covers virtually all Medicare cost-sharing obligations. Part B premiums, Part A premiums, if there are any, and any and all deductibles and co-insurance. QMB coverage is not retroactive.

The program’s benefits will begin the month after the month in which your client is found eligible. ** See special rules about cost-sharing for QMBs below - updated with new CMS directive issued January 2012 ** See NYC HRA QMB Recertification form ** Even if you do not have Part A automatically, because you did not have enough wages, you may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In Program, in which people eligible for QMB who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium (Materials by the Medicare Rights Center). 2.

Specifiedl Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB). For those with incomes between 100% and 120% FPL, the SLMB program will cover Part B premiums only. SLMB is retroactive, however, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months.

3. Qualified Individual (QI-1). For those with incomes between 120% and 135% FPL, and not receiving Medicaid, the QI-1 program will cover Medicare Part B premiums only.

QI-1 is also retroactive, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months. However, QI-1 retroactive coverage can only be provided within the current calendar year. (GIS 07 MA 027) So if you apply in January, you get no retroactive coverage.

Q-I-1 recipients would be eligible for Medicaid with a spend-down, but if they want the Part B premium paid, they must choose between enrolling in QI-1 or Medicaid. They cannot be in both. It is their choice.

DOH MRG p. 19. In contrast, one may receive Medicaid and either QMB or SLIMB.

4. Four Special Benefits of MSPs (in addition to NO ASSET TEST). Benefit 1.

Back Door to Medicare Part D "Extra Help" or Low Income Subsidy -- All MSP recipients are automatically enrolled in Extra Help, the subsidy that makes Part D affordable. They have no Part D deductible or doughnut hole, the premium is subsidized, and they pay very low copayments. Once they are enrolled in Extra Help by virtue of enrollment in an MSP, they retain Extra Help for the entire calendar year, even if they lose MSP eligibility during that year.

The "Full" Extra Help subsidy has the same income limit as QI-1 - 135% FPL. However, many people may be eligible for QI-1 but not Extra Help because QI-1 and the other MSPs have no asset limit. People applying to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help might be rejected for this reason.

Recent (2009-10) changes to federal law called "MIPPA" requires the Social Security Administration (SSA) to share eligibility data with NYSDOH on all persons who apply for Extra Help/ the Low Income Subsidy. Data sent to NYSDOH from SSA will enable NYSDOH to open MSP cases on many clients. The effective date of the MSP application must be the same date as the Extra Help application.

Signatures will not be required from clients. In cases where the SSA data is incomplete, NYSDOH will forward what is collected to the local district for completion of an MSP application. The State implementing procedures are in DOH 2010 ADM-03.

Also see CMS "Dear State Medicaid Director" letter dated Feb. 18, 2010 Benefit 2. MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B Generally one must enroll in Part B within the strict enrollment periods after turning age 65 or after 24 months of Social Security Disability.

An exception is if you or your spouse are still working and insured under an employer sponsored group health plan, or if you have End Stage Renal Disease, and other factors, see this from Medicare Rights Center. If you fail to enroll within those short periods, you might have to pay higher Part B premiums for life as a Late Enrollment Penalty (LEP). Also, you may only enroll in Part B during the Annual Enrollment Period from January 1 - March 31st each year, with Part B not effective until the following July.

Enrollment in an MSP automatically eliminates such penalties... For life.. Even if one later ceases to be eligible for the MSP.

AND enrolling in an MSP will automatically result in becoming enrolled in Part B if you didn't already have it and only had Part A. See Medicare Rights Center flyer. Benefit 3.

No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover MSP Benefits Paid Generally speaking, states may place liens on the Estates of deceased Medicaid recipients to recover the cost of Medicaid services that were provided after the recipient reached the age of 55. Since 2002, states have not been allowed to recover the cost of Medicare premiums paid under MSPs. In 2010, Congress expanded protection for MSP benefits.

Beginning on January 1, 2010, states may not place liens on the Estates of Medicaid recipients who died after January 1, 2010 to recover costs for co-insurance paid under the QMB MSP program for services rendered after January 1, 2010. The federal government made this change in order to eliminate barriers to enrollment in MSPs. See NYS DOH GIS 10-MA-008 - Medicare Savings Program Changes in Estate Recovery The GIS clarifies that a client who receives both QMB and full Medicaid is exempt from estate recovery for these Medicare cost-sharing expenses.

Benefit 4. SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits not reduced despite increased income from MSP - at least temporarily Many people receive both SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits and MSP. Income for purposes of SNAP/Food Stamps is reduced by a deduction for medical expenses, which includes payment of the Part B premium.

Since approval for an MSP means that the client no longer pays for the Part B premium, his/her SNAP/Food Stamps income goes up, so their SNAP/Food Stamps go down. Here are some protections. Do these individuals have to report to their SNAP worker that their out of pocket medical costs have decreased?.

And will the household see a reduction in their SNAP benefits, since the decrease in medical expenses will increase their countable income?. The good news is that MSP households do NOT have to report the decrease in their medical expenses to the SNAP/Food Stamp office until their next SNAP/Food Stamp recertification. Even if they do report the change, or the local district finds out because the same worker is handling both the MSP and SNAP case, there should be no reduction in the household’s benefit until the next recertification.

New York’s SNAP policy per administrative directive 02 ADM-07 is to “freeze” the deduction for medical expenses between certification periods. Increases in medical expenses can be budgeted at the household’s request, but NYS never decreases a household’s medical expense deduction until the next recertification. Most elderly and disabled households have 24-month SNAP certification periods.

Eventually, though, the decrease in medical expenses will need to be reported when the household recertifies for SNAP, and the household should expect to see a decrease in their monthly SNAP benefit. It is really important to stress that the loss in SNAP benefits is NOT dollar for dollar. A $100 decrease in out of pocket medical expenses would translate roughly into a $30 drop in SNAP benefits.

See more info on SNAP/Food Stamp benefits by the Empire Justice Center, and on the State OTDA website. Some clients will be automatically enrolled in an MSP by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) shortly after attaining eligibility for Medicare. Others need to apply.

The 2010 "MIPPA" law introduced some improvements to increase MSP enrollment. See 3rd bullet below. Also, some people who had Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare have special procedures to have their Part B premium paid before they enroll in an MSP.

See below. WHO IS AUTOMATICALLY ENROLLED IN AN MSP. Clients receiving even $1.00 of Supplemental Security Income should be automatically enrolled into a Medicare Savings Program (most often QMB) under New York State’s Medicare Savings Program Buy-in Agreement with the federal government once they become eligible for Medicare.

They should receive Medicare Parts A and B. Clients who are already eligible for Medicare when they apply for Medicaid should be automatically assessed for MSP eligibility when they apply for Medicaid. (NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 and GIS 05 MA 033).

Clients who apply to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help, but are rejected, should be contacted &. Enrolled into an MSP by the Medicaid program directly under new MIPPA procedures that require data sharing. Strategy TIP.

Since the Extra Help filing date will be assigned to the MSP application, it may help the client to apply online for Extra Help with the SSA, even knowing that this application will be rejected because of excess assets or other reason. SSA processes these requests quickly, and it will be routed to the State for MSP processing. Since MSP applications take a while, at least the filing date will be retroactive.

Note. The above strategy does not work as well for QMB, because the effective date of QMB is the month after the month of application. As a result, the retroactive effective date of Extra Help will be the month after the failed Extra Help application for those with QMB rather than SLMB/QI-1.

APPLYING FOR MSP DIRECTLY WITH LOCAL MEDICAID OFFICE Client already has Medicaid with Local District/HRA but not MSP. They should NOT have to submit an MSP application because the local district is required to review all Medicaid recipients for MSP eligibility and enroll them. (NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 and GIS 05 MA 033).

But if a Medicaid recipient does not have MSP, contact the Local Medicaid office and request that they be enrolled. In NYC - Use Form 751W and check the box on page 2 requesting evaluation for Medicare Savings Program. Fax it to the Undercare Division at 1-917-639-0837 or email it to [email protected].

Use by secure email. If enrolling in the MSP will cause a Spenddown (because income will increase by the amount of the Part B premium, include a completed and signed "Choice Notice" (MAP-3054a)(3/19/2019)(You must adapt this notice - generally check box 3B on page 2 to select enrollment in MSP while keeping Medicaid.) If do not have Medicaid -- must apply for an MSP through their local social services district. (See more in Section D.

Below re those who already have Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare. If you are applying for MSP only (not also Medicaid), you can use the simplified MSP application form (theDOH-4328(Rev. 8/2017-- English) (2017 Spanish version not yet available).

Either application form can be mailed in -- there is no interview requirement anymore for MSP or Medicaid. See 10 ADM-04. Applicants will need to submit proof of income, a copy of their Medicare card (front &.

Back), and proof of residency/address. See the application form for other instructions. One who is only eligible for QI-1 because of higher income may ONLY apply for an MSP, not for Medicaid too.

One may not receive Medicaid and QI-1 at the same time. If someone only eligible for QI-1 wants Medicaid, s/he may enroll in and deposit excess income into a pooled Supplemental Needs Trust, to bring her countable income down to the Medicaid level, which also qualifies him or her for SLIMB or QMB instead of QI-1. Advocates in NYC can sign up for a half-day "Deputization Training" conducted by the Medicare Rights Center, at which you'll be trained and authorized to complete an MSP application and to submit it via the Medicare Rights Center, which submits it to HRA without the client having to apply in person.

Enrolling in an MSP if you already have Medicaid, but just become eligible for Medicare" The procedure for getting the Part B premium paid is different for those whose Medicaid was administered by the NYS of Health Exchange (Marketplace), as opposed to their local social services district. The procedure is also different for those who obtain Medicare because they turn 65, as opposed to obtaining Medicare based on disability. Either way, Medicaid recipients who transition onto Medicare should be automatically evaluated for MSP eligibility at their next Medicaid recertification.

NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 Individuals can also affirmatively ask to be enrolled in MSP in between recertification periods. Individuals who are eligible for Medicaid with a spenddown can opt whether or not to receive MSP. (Medicaid Reference Guide (MRG) p.

19). Obtaining MSP may increase their spenddown. IF CLIENT HAD MEDICAID ON THE MARKETPLACE (NYS of Health Exchange) before obtaining Medicare - See article about the Medicare Insurance Payment Program (MIPP).

IF CLIENT HAD MEDICAID THROUGH LOCAL DISTRICT - see here, same procedure for any Medicaid recipient who needs MSP. MIPPA - Under MIPPA, the SSA sends a form letter to people who may be eligible for a Medicare Savings Program or Extra Help (Low Income Subsidy - LIS) that they may apply. The letters are.

· Beneficiary has Extra Help (LIS), but not MSP · Beneficiary has no Extra Help (LIS) or MSP 6. Enrolling in MSP for People Age 65+ who do Not have Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" Seniors WITHOUT MEDICARE PART A or B -- They may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In program, in which people eligible for QMB who are age 65+ who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll in Part A, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium. See Step-by-Step Guide by the Medicare Rights Center).

This guide explains the various steps in "conditionally enrolling" in Part A at the SSA office, which must be done before applying for QMB at the Medicaid office, which will then pay the Part A premium. See also GIS 04 MA/013. In June, 2018, the SSA revised the POMS manual procedures for the Part A Buy-In to to address inconsistencies and confusion in SSA field offices and help smooth the path for QMB enrollment.

The procedures are in the POMS Section HI 00801.140 "Premium-Free Part A Enrollments for Qualified Medicare BenefiIaries." It includes important clarifications, such as. SSA Field Offices should explain the QMB program and conditional enrollment process if an individual lacks premium-free Part A and appears to meet QMB requirements. SSA field offices can add notes to the “Remarks” section of the application and provide a screen shot to the individual so the individual can provide proof of conditional Part A enrollment when applying for QMB through the state Medicaid program.

Beneficiaries are allowed to complete the conditional application even if they owe Medicare premiums. In Part A Buy-in states like NYS, SSA should process conditional applications on a rolling basis (without regard to enrollment periods), even if the application coincides with the General Enrollment Period. (The General Enrollment Period is from Jan 1 to March 31st every year, in which anyone eligible may enroll in Medicare Part A or Part B to be effective on July 1st).

7. What happens after the MSP approval - How is Part B premium paid For all three MSP programs, the Medicaid program is now responsible for paying the Part B premiums, even though the MSP enrollee is not necessarily a recipient of Medicaid. The local Medicaid office (DSS/HRA) transmits the MSP approval to the NYS Department of Health – that information gets shared w/ SSA and CMS SSA stops deducting the Part B premiums out of the beneficiary’s Social Security check.

SSA also refunds any amounts owed to the recipient. (Note. This process can take awhile!.

!. !. ) CMS “deems” the MSP recipient eligible for Part D Extra Help/ Low Income Subsidy (LIS).

​Can the MSP be retroactive like Medicaid, back to 3 months before the application?. ​The answer is different for the 3 MSP programs. QMB -No Retroactive Eligibility – Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application.

18 NYCRR § 360-7.8(b)(5) SLIMB - YES - Retroactive Eligibility up to 3 months before the application, if was eligible This means applicant may be reimbursed for the 3 months of Part B benefits prior to the month of application. QI-1 - YES up to 3 months but only in the same calendar year. No retroactive eligibility to the previous year.

4 lasix 40mg price in canada. FOUR Special Benefits of MSP Programs. Back Door to Extra Help with Part D MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B - and allow enrollment in Part B year-round outside of the short Annual Enrollment Period No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover Payment of Expenses Paid by MSP Food Stamps/SNAP not reduced by Decreased Medical Expenses when Enroll in MSP - at least temporarily 5. Enrolling in lasix 40mg price in canada an MSP - Automatic Enrollment &. Applications for People who Have Medicare WHO IS AUTOMATICALLY ENROLLED IN AN MSP Applying for MSP Directly with Local Medicaid Program - including those who already have Medicaid through local Medicaid program but need MSP, and those newly applying for MSP Enrolling in an MSP if you have Medicaid and Just Became Eligible for Medicare MIPPA - SSA Notifies Social Security recipients that they may be eligible for MSP based on their income.

6. Enrolling in an MSP for People age 65+ who Do Not Qualify for Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" 7 lasix 40mg price in canada. What Happens After MSP Approved - How Part B Premium is Paid 8 Special Rules for QMBs - How Medicare Cost-Sharing Works 1. NO ASSET LIMIT!. Since April lasix 40mg price in canada 1, 2008, none of the three MSP programs have resource limits in New York -- which means many Medicare beneficiaries who might not qualify for Medicaid because of excess resources can qualify for an MSP.

1.A. SUMMARY CHART OF MSP BENEFITS QMB SLIMB QI-1 Eligibility ASSET LIMIT NO LIMIT IN NEW YORK STATE INCOME LIMIT (2022) Single Couple Single Couple Single Couple $1,133 $1,526 $1,359 $1,831 $1,529 $2,060 Federal Poverty Level 100% FPL 100 – 120% FPL 120 – 135% FPL Benefits Pays Monthly Part B premium?. YES, and also Part A premium if lasix 40mg price in canada did not have enough work quarters and meets citizenship requirement. See “Part A Buy-In” YES YES Pays Part A &. B deductibles &.

Co-insurance YES - with limitations NO NO Retroactive to Filing of lasix 40mg price in canada Application?. Yes - Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application. 18 NYCRR §360-7.8(b)(5) Yes – Retroactive to 3rd month before month of application, if eligible in prior months Yes – may be retroactive to 3rd month before month of applica-tion, but only within the current calendar year. (No retro for January lasix 40mg price in canada application). See GIS 07 MA 027.

Can Enroll in MSP and Medicaid at Same Time?. YES YES lasix 40mg price in canada NO!. Must choose between QI-1 and Medicaid. Cannot have both, not even Medicaid with a spend-down. 2 lasix 40mg price in canada.

INCOME LIMITS and RULES Each of the three MSP programs has different income eligibility requirements and provides different benefits. The income limits are tied to the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). The figures in the chart are based on a document issued by HRA in lasix 40mg price in canada March 2022 (Box 7) based on the 2022 FPL. See 2022 Fact Sheet on MSP in NYS by Medicare Rights Center ENGLISH SPANISH Income is determined by the same methodology as is used for determining in eligibility for SSI The rules for counting income for SSI-related (Aged 65+, Blind, or Disabled) Medicaid recipients, borrowed from the SSI program, apply to the MSP program, except for the new rules about counting household size for married couples. N.Y.

Soc. Serv. L. 367-a(3)(c)(2), NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7, 89-ADM-7 p.7. Gross income is counted, although there are certain types of income that are disregarded.

The most common income disregards, also known as deductions, include. (a) The first $20 of your &. Your spouse's monthly income, earned or unearned ($20 per couple max). (b) SSI EARNED INCOME DISREGARDS. * The first $65 of monthly wages of you and your spouse, * One-half of the remaining monthly wages (after the $65 is deducted).

* Other work incentives including PASS plans, impairment related work expenses (IRWEs), blind work expenses, etc. For information on these deductions, see The Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities (MBI-WPD) and other guides in this article -- though written for the MBI-WPD, the work incentives apply to all Medicaid programs, including MSP, for people age 65+, disabled or blind. (c) monthly cost of any health insurance premiums but NOT the Part B premium, since Medicaid will now pay this premium (may deduct Medigap supplemental policies, vision, dental, or long term care insurance premiums, and the Part D premium but only to the extent the premium exceeds the Extra Help benchmark amount) (d) Food stamps not counted. You can get a more comprehensive listing of the SSI-related income disregards on the Medicaid income disregards chart. As for all benefit programs based on financial need, it is usually advantageous to be considered a larger household, because the income limit is higher.

The above chart shows that Households of TWO have a higher income limit than households of ONE. The MSP programs use the same rules as Medicaid does for the Disabled, Aged and Blind (DAB) which are borrowed from the SSI program for Medicaid recipients in the “SSI-related category.” Under these rules, a household can be only ONE or TWO. 18 NYCRR 360-4.2. See DAB Household Size Chart. Married persons can sometimes be ONE or TWO depending on arcane rules, which can force a Medicare beneficiary to be limited to the income limit for ONE person even though his spouse who is under 65 and not disabled has no income, and is supported by the client applying for an MSP.

EXAMPLE. Bob's Social Security is $1300/month. He is age 67 and has Medicare. His wife, Nancy, is age 62 and is not disabled and does not work. Under the old rule, Bob was not eligible for an MSP because his income was above the Income limit for One, even though it was well under the Couple limit.

In 2010, NYS DOH modified its rules so that all married individuals will be considered a household size of TWO. DOH GIS 10 MA 10 Medicare Savings Program Household Size, June 4, 2010. This rule for household size is an exception to the rule applying SSI budgeting rules to the MSP program. Under these rules, Bob is now eligible for an MSP. When is One Better than Two?.

Of course, there may be couples where the non-applying spouse's income is too high, and disqualifies the applying spouse from an MSP. In such cases, "spousal refusal" may be used SSL 366.3(a). (Link is to NYC HRA form, can be adapted for other counties). In NYC, if you have a Medicaid case with HRA, instead of submitting an MSP application, you only need to complete and submit MAP-751W (check off "Medicare Savings Program Evaluation") and fax to (917) 639-0837. (The MAP-751W is also posted in languages other than English in this link.

(Updated 4/14/2021.)) 3. The Three Medicare Savings Programs - what are they and how are they different?. 1. Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB). The QMB program provides the most comprehensive benefits.

Available to those with incomes at or below 100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), the QMB program covers virtually all Medicare cost-sharing obligations. Part B premiums, Part A premiums, if there are any, and any and all deductibles and co-insurance. QMB coverage is not retroactive. The program’s benefits will begin the month after the month in which your client is found eligible. ** See special rules about cost-sharing for QMBs below - updated with new CMS directive issued January 2012 ** See NYC HRA QMB Recertification form ** Even if you do not have Part A automatically, because you did not have enough wages, you may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In Program, in which people eligible for QMB who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium (Materials by the Medicare Rights Center).

2. Specifiedl Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB). For those with incomes between 100% and 120% FPL, the SLMB program will cover Part B premiums only. SLMB is retroactive, however, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months. 3.

Qualified Individual (QI-1). For those with incomes between 120% and 135% FPL, and not receiving Medicaid, the QI-1 program will cover Medicare Part B premiums only. QI-1 is also retroactive, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months. However, QI-1 retroactive coverage can only be provided within the current calendar year. (GIS 07 MA 027) So if you apply in January, you get no retroactive coverage.

Q-I-1 recipients would be eligible for Medicaid with a spend-down, but if they want the Part B premium paid, they must choose between enrolling in QI-1 or Medicaid. They cannot be in both. It is their choice. DOH MRG p. 19.

In contrast, one may receive Medicaid and either QMB or SLIMB. 4. Four Special Benefits of MSPs (in addition to NO ASSET TEST). Benefit 1. Back Door to Medicare Part D "Extra Help" or Low Income Subsidy -- All MSP recipients are automatically enrolled in Extra Help, the subsidy that makes Part D affordable.

They have no Part D deductible or doughnut hole, the premium is subsidized, and they pay very low copayments. Once they are enrolled in Extra Help by virtue of enrollment in an MSP, they retain Extra Help for the entire calendar year, even if they lose MSP eligibility during that year. The "Full" Extra Help subsidy has the same income limit as QI-1 - 135% FPL. However, many people may be eligible for QI-1 but not Extra Help because QI-1 and the other MSPs have no asset limit. People applying to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help might be rejected for this reason.

Recent (2009-10) changes to federal law called "MIPPA" requires the Social Security Administration (SSA) to share eligibility data with NYSDOH on all persons who apply for Extra Help/ the Low Income Subsidy. Data sent to NYSDOH from SSA will enable NYSDOH to open MSP cases on many clients. The effective date of the MSP application must be the same date as the Extra Help application. Signatures will not be required from clients. In cases where the SSA data is incomplete, NYSDOH will forward what is collected to the local district for completion of an MSP application.

The State implementing procedures are in DOH 2010 ADM-03. Also see CMS "Dear State Medicaid Director" letter dated Feb. 18, 2010 Benefit 2. MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B Generally one must enroll in Part B within the strict enrollment periods after turning age 65 or after 24 months of Social Security Disability. An exception is if you or your spouse are still working and insured under an employer sponsored group health plan, or if you have End Stage Renal Disease, and other factors, see this from Medicare Rights Center.

If you fail to enroll within those short periods, you might have to pay higher Part B premiums for life as a Late Enrollment Penalty (LEP). Also, you may only enroll in Part B during the Annual Enrollment Period from January 1 - March 31st each year, with Part B not effective until the following July. Enrollment in an MSP automatically eliminates such penalties... For life.. Even if one later ceases to be eligible for the MSP.

AND enrolling in an MSP will automatically result in becoming enrolled in Part B if you didn't already have it and only had Part A. See Medicare Rights Center flyer. Benefit 3. No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover MSP Benefits Paid Generally speaking, states may place liens on the Estates of deceased Medicaid recipients to recover the cost of Medicaid services that were provided after the recipient reached the age of 55. Since 2002, states have not been allowed to recover the cost of Medicare premiums paid under MSPs.

In 2010, Congress expanded protection for MSP benefits. Beginning on January 1, 2010, states may not place liens on the Estates of Medicaid recipients who died after January 1, 2010 to recover costs for co-insurance paid under the QMB MSP program for services rendered after January 1, 2010. The federal government made this change in order to eliminate barriers to enrollment in MSPs. See NYS DOH GIS 10-MA-008 - Medicare Savings Program Changes in Estate Recovery The GIS clarifies that a client who receives both QMB and full Medicaid is exempt from estate recovery for these Medicare cost-sharing expenses. Benefit 4.

SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits not reduced despite increased income from MSP - at least temporarily Many people receive both SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits and MSP. Income for purposes of SNAP/Food Stamps is reduced by a deduction for medical expenses, which includes payment of the Part B premium. Since approval for an MSP means that the client no longer pays for the Part B premium, his/her SNAP/Food Stamps income goes up, so their SNAP/Food Stamps go down. Here are some protections. Do these individuals have to report to their SNAP worker that their out of pocket medical costs have decreased?.

And will the household see a reduction in their SNAP benefits, since the decrease in medical expenses will increase their countable income?. The good news is that MSP households do NOT have to report the decrease in their medical expenses to the SNAP/Food Stamp office until their next SNAP/Food Stamp recertification. Even if they do report the change, or the local district finds out because the same worker is handling both the MSP and SNAP case, there should be no reduction in the household’s benefit until the next recertification. New York’s SNAP policy per administrative directive 02 ADM-07 is to “freeze” the deduction for medical expenses between certification periods. Increases in medical expenses can be budgeted at the household’s request, but NYS never decreases a household’s medical expense deduction until the next recertification.

Most elderly and disabled households have 24-month SNAP certification periods. Eventually, though, the decrease in medical expenses will need to be reported when the household recertifies for SNAP, and the household should expect to see a decrease in their monthly SNAP benefit. It is really important to stress that the loss in SNAP benefits is NOT dollar for dollar. A $100 decrease in out of pocket medical expenses would translate roughly into a $30 drop in SNAP benefits. See more info on SNAP/Food Stamp benefits by the Empire Justice Center, and on the State OTDA website.

Some clients will be automatically enrolled in an MSP by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) shortly after attaining eligibility for Medicare. Others need to apply. The 2010 "MIPPA" law introduced some improvements to increase MSP enrollment. See 3rd bullet below. Also, some people who had Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare have special procedures to have their Part B premium paid before they enroll in an MSP.

See below. WHO IS AUTOMATICALLY ENROLLED IN AN MSP. Clients receiving even $1.00 of Supplemental Security Income should be automatically enrolled into a Medicare Savings Program (most often QMB) under New York State’s Medicare Savings Program Buy-in Agreement with the federal government once they become eligible for Medicare. They should receive Medicare Parts A and B. Clients who are already eligible for Medicare when they apply for Medicaid should be automatically assessed for MSP eligibility when they apply for Medicaid.

(NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 and GIS 05 MA 033). Clients who apply to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help, but are rejected, should be contacted &. Enrolled into an MSP by the Medicaid program directly under new MIPPA procedures that require data sharing. Strategy TIP. Since the Extra Help filing date will be assigned to the MSP application, it may help the client to apply online for Extra Help with the SSA, even knowing that this application will be rejected because of excess assets or other reason.

SSA processes these requests quickly, and it will be routed to the State for MSP processing. Since MSP applications take a while, at least the filing date will be retroactive. Note. The above strategy does not work as well for QMB, because the effective date of QMB is the month after the month of application. As a result, the retroactive effective date of Extra Help will be the month after the failed Extra Help application for those with QMB rather than SLMB/QI-1.

APPLYING FOR MSP DIRECTLY WITH LOCAL MEDICAID OFFICE Client already has Medicaid with Local District/HRA but not MSP. They should NOT have to submit an MSP application because the local district is required to review all Medicaid recipients for MSP eligibility and enroll them. (NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 and GIS 05 MA 033). But if a Medicaid recipient does not have MSP, contact the Local Medicaid office and request that they be enrolled. In NYC - Use Form 751W and check the box on page 2 requesting evaluation for Medicare Savings Program.

Fax it to the Undercare Division at 1-917-639-0837 or email it to [email protected]. Use by secure email. If enrolling in the MSP will cause a Spenddown (because income will increase by the amount of the Part B premium, include a completed and signed "Choice Notice" (MAP-3054a)(3/19/2019)(You must adapt this notice - generally check box 3B on page 2 to select enrollment in MSP while keeping Medicaid.) If do not have Medicaid -- must apply for an MSP through their local social services district. (See more in Section D. Below re those who already have Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare.

If you are applying for MSP only (not also Medicaid), you can use the simplified MSP application form (theDOH-4328(Rev. 8/2017-- English) (2017 Spanish version not yet available). Either application form can be mailed in -- there is no interview requirement anymore for MSP or Medicaid. See 10 ADM-04. Applicants will need to submit proof of income, a copy of their Medicare card (front &.

Back), and proof of residency/address. See the application form for other instructions. One who is only eligible for QI-1 because of higher income may ONLY apply for an MSP, not for Medicaid too. One may not receive Medicaid and QI-1 at the same time. If someone only eligible for QI-1 wants Medicaid, s/he may enroll in and deposit excess income into a pooled Supplemental Needs Trust, to bring her countable income down to the Medicaid level, which also qualifies him or her for SLIMB or QMB instead of QI-1.

Advocates in NYC can sign up for a half-day "Deputization Training" conducted by the Medicare Rights Center, at which you'll be trained and authorized to complete an MSP application and to submit it via the Medicare Rights Center, which submits it to HRA without the client having to apply in person. Enrolling in an MSP if you already have Medicaid, but just become eligible for Medicare" The procedure for getting the Part B premium paid is different for those whose Medicaid was administered by the NYS of Health Exchange (Marketplace), as opposed to their local social services district. The procedure is also different for those who obtain Medicare because they turn 65, as opposed to obtaining Medicare based on disability. Either way, Medicaid recipients who transition onto Medicare should be automatically evaluated for MSP eligibility at their next Medicaid recertification. NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 Individuals can also affirmatively ask to be enrolled in MSP in between recertification periods.

Individuals who are eligible for Medicaid with a spenddown can opt whether or not to receive MSP. (Medicaid Reference Guide (MRG) p. 19). Obtaining MSP may increase their spenddown. IF CLIENT HAD MEDICAID ON THE MARKETPLACE (NYS of Health Exchange) before obtaining Medicare - See article about the Medicare Insurance Payment Program (MIPP).

IF CLIENT HAD MEDICAID THROUGH LOCAL DISTRICT - see here, same procedure for any Medicaid recipient who needs MSP. MIPPA - Under MIPPA, the SSA sends a form letter to people who may be eligible for a Medicare Savings Program or Extra Help (Low Income Subsidy - LIS) that they may apply. The letters are. · Beneficiary has Extra Help (LIS), but not MSP · Beneficiary has no Extra Help (LIS) or MSP 6. Enrolling in MSP for People Age 65+ who do Not have Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" Seniors WITHOUT MEDICARE PART A or B -- They may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In program, in which people eligible for QMB who are age 65+ who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll in Part A, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium.

See Step-by-Step Guide by the Medicare Rights Center). This guide explains the various steps in "conditionally enrolling" in Part A at the SSA office, which must be done before applying for QMB at the Medicaid office, which will then pay the Part A premium. See also GIS 04 MA/013. In June, 2018, the SSA revised the POMS manual procedures for the Part A Buy-In to to address inconsistencies and confusion in SSA field offices and help smooth the path for QMB enrollment. The procedures are in the POMS Section HI 00801.140 "Premium-Free Part A Enrollments for Qualified Medicare BenefiIaries." It includes important clarifications, such as.

SSA Field Offices should explain the QMB program and conditional enrollment process if an individual lacks premium-free Part A and appears to meet QMB requirements. SSA field offices can add notes to the “Remarks” section of the application and provide a screen shot to the individual so the individual can provide proof of conditional Part A enrollment when applying for QMB through the state Medicaid program. Beneficiaries are allowed to complete the conditional application even if they owe Medicare premiums. In Part A Buy-in states like NYS, SSA should process conditional applications on a rolling basis (without regard to enrollment periods), even if the application coincides with the General Enrollment Period. (The General Enrollment Period is from Jan 1 to March 31st every year, in which anyone eligible may enroll in Medicare Part A or Part B to be effective on July 1st).

7. What happens after the MSP approval - How is Part B premium paid For all three MSP programs, the Medicaid program is now responsible for paying the Part B premiums, even though the MSP enrollee is not necessarily a recipient of Medicaid. The local Medicaid office (DSS/HRA) transmits the MSP approval to the NYS Department of Health – that information gets shared w/ SSA and CMS SSA stops deducting the Part B premiums out of the beneficiary’s Social Security check. SSA also refunds any amounts owed to the recipient. (Note.

This process can take awhile!. !. !. ) CMS “deems” the MSP recipient eligible for Part D Extra Help/ Low Income Subsidy (LIS). ​Can the MSP be retroactive like Medicaid, back to 3 months before the application?.

​The answer is different for the 3 MSP programs. QMB -No Retroactive Eligibility – Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application. 18 NYCRR § 360-7.8(b)(5) SLIMB - YES - Retroactive Eligibility up to 3 months before the application, if was eligible This means applicant may be reimbursed for the 3 months of Part B benefits prior to the month of application. QI-1 - YES up to 3 months but only in the same calendar year. No retroactive eligibility to the previous year.

7. QMBs -Special Rules on Cost-Sharing. QMB is the only MSP program which pays not only the Part B premium, but also the Medicare co-insurance. However, there are limitations. First, co-insurance will only be paid if the provide accepts Medicaid.

Not all Medicare provides accept Medicaid. Second, under recent changes in New York law, Medicaid will not always pay the Medicare co-insurance, even to a Medicaid provider. But even if the provider does not accept Medicaid, or if Medicaid does not pay the full co-insurance, the provider is banned from "balance billing" the QMB beneficiary for the co-insurance. Click here for an article that explains all of these rules. This article was authored by the Empire Justice Center..

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Buy lasix online

Maximizing health coverage for DAP buy lasix online clients official source. Before and after winning the case Outline prepared by Geoffrey Hale and Cathy Roberts - updated August 2012 This outline is intended to assist Disability Advocacy Program (DAP) advocates maximize health insurance coverage for clients they are representing on Social Security/SSI disability determinations. We begin with a discussion of coverage options available while your client’s DAP case is pending and then buy lasix online outline the effect winning the DAP case can have on your client’s access to health care coverage. How your client is affected will vary depending on the source and amount of disability income he or she receives after the successful appeal.

I. BACKGROUND buy lasix online. Public health coverage for your clients will primarily be provided by Medicaid and Medicare. The two programs are structured differently and have different eligibility criteria, buy lasix online but in order to provide the most complete coverage possible for your clients, they must work effectively together.

Understanding their interactions is essential to ensuring benefits for your client. Here is a brief overview of the programs we will cover. A. Medicaid.

Medicaid is the public insurance program jointly funded by the federal, state and local governments for people of limited means. For federal Medicaid law, see 42 U.S.C. § 1396 et seq., 42 C.F.R. § 430 et seq.

Regular Medicaid is described in New York’s State Plan and codified at N.Y. Soc. Serv. L.

§§ 122, 131, 363- 369-1. 18 N.Y.C.R.R. § 360, 505. New York also offers several additional programs to provide health care benefits to those whose income might be too high for Regular Medicaid.

i. Family Health Plus (FHPlus) is an extension of New York’s Medicaid program that provides health coverage for adults who are over-income for regular Medicaid. FHPlus is described in New York’s 1115 waiver and codified at N.Y. Soc.

Child Health Plus (CHPlus) is a sliding scale premium program for children who are over-income for regular Medicaid. CHPlus is codified at N.Y. Pub. Health L.

§2510 et seq. b. Medicare. Medicare is the federal health insurance program providing coverage for the elderly, disabled, and people with end-stage renal disease.

Medicare is codified under title XVIII of the Social Security Law, see 42 U.S.C. § 1395 et seq., 42 C.F.R. § 400 et seq. Medicare is divided into four parts.

i. Part A covers hospital, skilled nursing facility, home health, and hospice care, with some deductibles and coinsurance. Most people are eligible for Part A at no cost. See 42 U.S.C.

Part B provides medical insurance for doctor’s visits and other outpatient medical services. Medicare Part B has significant cost-sharing components. There are monthly premiums (the standard premium in 2012 is $99.90. In addition, there is a $135 annual deductible (which will increase to $155 in 2010) as well as 20% co-insurance for most covered out-patient services.

See 42 U.S.C. § 1395k, 42 C.F.R. Pt. 407.

iii. Part C, also called Medicare Advantage, provides traditional Medicare coverage (Parts A and B) through private managed care insurers. See 42 U.S.C. § 1395w, 42 C.F.R.

Pt. 422. Premium amounts for Medicare Advantage plans vary. Some Medicare Advantage plans include prescription drug coverage.

iv. Part D is an optional prescription drug benefit available to anyone with Medicare Parts A and B. See 42 U.S.C. § 1395w, 42 C.F.R.

§ 423.30(a)(1)(i) and (ii). Unlike Parts A and B, Part D benefits are provided directly through private plans offered by insurance companies. In order to receive prescription drug coverage, a Medicare beneficiary must join a Part D Plan or participate in a Medicare Advantage plan that provides prescription drug coverage. C.

Medicare Savings Programs (MSPs). Funded by the State Medicaid program, MSPs help eligible individuals meet some or all of their cost-sharing obligations under Medicare. See N.Y. Soc.

Serv. L. § 367-a(3)(a), (b), and (d). There are three separate MSPs, each with different eligibility requirements and providing different benefits.

i. Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB). The QMB program provides the most comprehensive benefits. Available to those with incomes at or below 100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), the QMB program covers virtually all Medicare cost-sharing obligations.

Part B premiums, Part A premiums, if there are any, and any and all deductibles and co-insurance. ii. Special Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB). For those with incomes between 100% and 120% FPL, the SLMB program will cover Part B premiums only.

iii. Qualified Individual (QI-1). For those with incomes between 120% and 135% FPL, but not otherwise Medicaid eligible, the QI-1 program covers Medicare Part B premiums. D.

Medicare Part D Low Income Subsidy (LIS or “Extra Help”). LIS is a federal subsidy administered by CMS that helps Medicare beneficiaries with limited income and/or resources pay for some or most of the costs of Medicare prescription drug coverage. See 42 C.F.R. § 423.773.

Some of the costs covered in full or in part by LIS include the monthly premiums, annual deductible, co-payments, and the coverage gap. Individuals eligible for Medicaid, SSI, or MSP are deemed eligible for full LIS benefitsSee 42 C.F.R. § 423.773(c). LIS applications are treated as (“deemed”) applications for MSP benefits, See the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act (MIPPA) of 2008, Pub.

Law 110-275. II. WHILE THE DAP APPEAL IS PENDING Does your client have health insurance?. If not, why isn’t s/he getting Medicaid, Family Health Plus or Child Health Plus?.

There have been many recent changes which expand eligibility and streamline the application process. All/most of your DAP clients should qualify. Significant changes to Medicaid include. Elimination of the resource test for certain categories of Medicaid applicants/recipients and all applicants to the Family Health Plus program.

§369-ee (2), as amended by L. 2009, c. 58, pt. C, § 59-d.

As of October 1, 2009, a resource test is no longer required for these categories. Elimination of the fingerprinting requirement. N.Y. Soc.

Serv. L. §369-ee, as amended by L. 2009, c.

58, pt. C, § 62. Elimination of the waiting period for CHPlus. N.Y.

Pub. Health L. §2511, as amended by L. 2008, c.

58. Elimination of the face-to-face interview requirement for Medicaid, effective April 1, 2010. N.Y. Soc.

Serv. L. §366-a (1), as amended by L. 2009, c.

58, pt. C, § 60. Higher income levels for Single Adults and Childless Couples. N.Y.

Soc. Serv. L. §366(1)(a)(1),(8) as amended by L.

Higher income levels for Medicaid’s Medically Needy program. N.Y. Soc. Serv.

L. §366(2)(a)(7) as amended by L. 2008, c. 58.

See also. GIS 08 MA/022 More detailed information on recent changes to Medicaid is available at. III. AFTER CLIENT IS AWARDED DAP BENEFITS a.

Medicaid eligibility. Clients receiving even $1.00 of SSI should qualify for Medicaid automatically. The process for qualifying will differ, however, depending on the source of payment. 1.

Clients Receiving SSI Only. i. These clients are eligible for full Medicaid without a spend-down. See N.Y.

ii. Medicaid coverage is automatic. No separate application/ recertification required. iii.

Most SSI-only recipients are required to participate in Medicaid managed care. See N.Y. Soc. Serv.

L. §364-j. 2. Concurrent (SSI/SSD) cases.

Eligible for full Medicaid since receiving SSI. See N.Y. Soc. Serv.

I. They can still qualify for Medicaid but may have a spend-down. Federal Law allows states to use a “spend-down” to extend Medicaid to “medically needy” persons in the federal mandatory categories (children, caretakers, elderly and disabled people) whose income or resources are above the eligibility level for regular Medicaid. See 42 U.S.C.

§ 1396 (a) (10) (ii) (XIII). ii. Under spend-down, applicants in New York’s Medically Needy program can qualify for Medicaid once their income/resources, minus incurred medical expenses, fall below the specified level. For an explanation of spend-down, see 96 ADM 15.

B. Family Health Plus Until your client qualifies for Medicare, those over-income for Medicaid may qualify for Family Health Plus without needing to satisfy a spend-down. It covers adults without children with income up to 100% of the FPL and adults with children up to 150% of the FPL.[1] The eligibility tests are the same as for regular Medicaid with two additional requirements. Applicants must be between the ages of 19 and 64 and they generally must be uninsured.

§ 369-ee et. Seq. Once your client begins to receive Medicare, he or she will not be eligible for FHP, because FHP is generally only available to those without insurance. For more information on FHP see our article on Family Health Plus.

IV. LOOMING ISSUES - MEDICARE ELIGIBILITY (WHETHER YOU LIKE IT OR NOT) a. SSI-only cases Clients receiving only SSI aren’t eligible for Medicare until they turn 65, unless they also have End Stage Renal Disease. B.

Concurrent (SSD and SSI) cases 1. Medicare eligibility kicks in beginning with 25th month of SSD receipt. See 42 U.S.C. § 426(f).

Exception. In 2000, Congress eliminated the 24-month waiting period for people diagnosed with ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease.) See 42 U.S.C. § 426 (h) 2. Enrollment in Medicare is a condition of eligibility for Medicaid coverage.

These clients cannot decline Medicare coverage. (05 OMM/ADM 5. Medicaid Reference Guide p. 344.1) 3.

Medicare coverage is not free. Although most individuals receive Part A without any premium, Part B has monthly premiums and significant cost-sharing components. 4. Medicaid and/or the Medicare Savings Program (MSP) should pick up most of Medicare’s cost sharing.

Most SSI beneficiaries are eligible not only for full Medicaid, but also for the most comprehensive MSP, the Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB) program. I. Parts A &. B (hospital and outpatient/doctors visits).

A. Medicaid will pick up premiums, deductibles, co-pays. N.Y. Soc.

Serv. L. § 367-a (3) (a). For those not enrolled in an MSP, SSA normally deducts the Part B premium directly from the monthly check.

However, SSI recipients are supposed to be enrolled automatically in QMB, and Medicaid is responsible for covering the premiums. Part B premiums should never be deducted from these clients’ checks.[1] Medicaid and QMB-only recipients should NEVER be billed directly for Part A or B services. Even non-Medicaid providers are supposed to be able to bill Medicaid directly for services.[2] Clients are only responsible for Medicaid co-pay amount. See 42 U.S.C.

§ 1396a (n) ii. Part D (prescription drugs). a. Clients enrolled in Medicaid and/or MSP are deemed eligible for Low Income Subsidy (LIS aka Extra Help).

See 42 C.F.R. § 423.773(c). SSA POMS SI § 01715.005A.5. New York State If client doesn’t enroll in Part D plan on his/her own, s/he will be automatically assigned to a benchmark[3] plan.

See 42 C.F.R. § 423.34 (d). LIS will pick up most of cost-sharing.[3] Because your clients are eligible for full LIS, they should have NO deductible and NO premium if they are in a benchmark plan, and will not be subject to the coverage gap (aka “donut hole”). See 42 C.F.R.

§§ 423.780 and 423.782. The full LIS beneficiary will also have co-pays limited to either $1.10 or $3.30 (2010 amounts). See 42 C.F.R. § 423.104 (d) (5) (A).

Other important points to remember. - Medicaid co-pay rules do not apply to Part D drugs. - Your client’s plan may not cover all his/her drugs. - You can help your clients find the plan that best suits their needs.

To figure out what the best Part D plans are best for your particular client, go to www.medicare.gov. Click on “formulary finder” and plug in your client’s medication list. You can enroll in a Part D plan through www.medicare.gov, or by contacting the plan directly. €“ Your clients can switch plans at any time during the year.

Iii. Part C (“Medicare Advantage”). a. Medicare Advantage plans provide traditional Medicare coverage (Parts A and B) through private managed care insurers.

See 42 U.S.C. § 1395w, 42 C.F.R. Pt. 422.

Medicare Advantage participation is voluntary. For those clients enrolled in Medicare Advantage Plans, the QMB cost sharing obligations are the same as they are under traditional Medicare. Medicaid must cover any premiums required by the plan, up to the Part B premium amount. Medicaid must also cover any co-payments and co-insurance under the plan.

As with traditional Medicare, both providers and plans are prohibited from billing the beneficiary directly for these co-payments. C. SSD only individuals. 1.

Same Medicare eligibility criteria (24 month waiting period, except for persons w/ ALS). I. During the 24 month waiting period, explore eligibility for Medicaid or Family Health Plus. 2.

Once Medicare eligibility begins. ii. Parts A &. B.

SSA will automatically enroll your client. Part B premiums will be deducted from monthly Social Security benefits. (Part A will be free – no monthly premium) Clients have the right to decline ongoing Part B coverage, BUT this is almost never a good idea, and can cause all sorts of headaches if client ever wants to enroll in Part B in the future. (late enrollment penalty and can’t enroll outside of annual enrollment period, unless person is eligible for Medicare Savings Program – see more below) Clients can decline “retro” Part B coverage with no penalty on the Medicare side – just make sure they don’t actually need the coverage.

Risky to decline if they had other coverage during the retro period – their other coverage may require that Medicare be utilized if available. Part A and Part B also have deductibles and co-pays. Medicaid and/or the MSPs can help cover this cost sharing. iii.

Part D. Client must affirmatively enroll in Part D, unless they receive LIS. See 42 U.S.C. § 1395w-101 (b) (2), 42 C.F.R.

§ 423.38 (a). Enrollment is done through individual private plans. LIS recipients will be auto-assigned to a Part D benchmark plan if they have not selected a plan on their own. Client can decline Part D coverage with no penalty if s/he has “comparable coverage.” 42 C.F.R.

§ 423.34 (d) (3) (i). If no comparable coverage, person faces possible late enrollment penalty &. Limited enrollment periods. 42 C.F.R.

§ 423.46. However, clients receiving LIS do not incur any late enrollment penalty. 42 C.F.R. § 423.780 (e).

Part D has a substantial cost-sharing component – deductibles, premiums and co-pays which vary from plan to plan. There is also the coverage gap, also known as “donut hole,” which can leave beneficiaries picking up 100% of the cost of their drugs until/unless a catastrophic spending limit is reached. The LIS program can help with Part D cost-sharing. Use Medicare’s website to figure out what plan is best for your client.

(Go to www.medicare.gov , click on “formulary finder” and plug in your client’s medication list. ) You can also enroll in a Part D plan directly through www.medicare.gov. Iii. Help with Medicare cost-sharing a.

Medicaid – After eligibility for Medicare starts, client may still be eligible for Medicaid, with or without a spend-down. There are lots of ways to help clients meet their spend-down – including - Medicare cost sharing amounts (deductibles, premiums, co-pays) - over the counter medications if prescribed by a doctor. - expenses paid by state-funded programs like EPIC and ADAP. - medical bills of person’s spouse or child.

- health insurance premiums. - joining a pooled Supplemental Needs Trust (SNT). B. Medicare Savings Program (MSP) – If client is not eligible for Medicaid, explore eligibility for Medicare Savings Program (MSP).

MSP pays for Part B premiums and gets you into the Part D LIS. There are no asset limits in the Medicare Savings Program. One of the MSPs (QMB), also covers all cost sharing for Parts A &. B.

If your client is eligible for Medicaid AND MSP, enrolling in MSP may subject him/her to, or increase a spend-down, because Medicaid and the various MSPs have different income eligibility levels. It is the client’s choice as to whether or not to be enrolled into MSP. C. Part D Low Income Subsidy (LIS) – If your client is not eligible for MSP or Medicaid, s/he may still be eligible for Part D Low Income Subsidy.

Applications for LIS are also be treated as applications for MSP, unless the client affirmatively indicates that s/he does not want to apply for MSP. d. Medicare supplemental insurance (Medigap) -- Medigap is supplemental private insurance coverage that covers all or some of the deductibles and coinsurance for Medicare Parts A and B. Medigap is not available to people enrolled in Part C.

E. Medicare Advantage – Medicare Advantage plans “package” Medicare (Part A and B) benefits, with or without Part D coverage, through a private health insurance plan. The cost-sharing structure (deductible, premium, co-pays) varies from plan to plan. For a list of Medicare Advantage plans in your area, go to www.medicare.gov – click on “find health plans.” f.

NY Prescription Saver Card -- NYP$ is a state-sponsored pharmacy discount card that can lower the cost of prescriptions by as much as 60 percent on generics and 30 percent on brand name drugs. Can be used during the Part D “donut hole” (coverage gap) g. For clients living with HIV. ADAP [AIDS Drug Assistance Program] ADAP provides free medications for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and opportunistic s.

ADAP can be used to help meet a Medicaid spenddown and get into the Part D Low Income subsidy. For more information about ADAP, go to V. GETTING MEDICAID IN THE DISABLED CATEGORY AFTER AN SSI/SSDI DENIAL What if your client's application for SSI or SSDI is denied based on SSA's finding that they were not "disabled?. " Obviously, you have your appeals work cut out for you, but in the meantime, what can they do about health insurance?.

It is still possible to have Medicaid make a separate disability determination that is not controlled by the unfavorable SSA determination in certain situations. Specifically, an applicant is entitled to a new disability determination where he/she. alleges a different or additional disabling condition than that considered by SSA in making its determination. Or alleges less than 12 months after the most recent unfavorable SSA disability determination that his/her condition has changed or deteriorated, alleges a new period of disability which meets the duration requirement, and SSA has refused to reopen or reconsider the allegations, or the individual is now ineligible for SSA benefits for a non-medical reason.

Or alleges more than 12 months after the most recent unfavorable SSA disability determination that his/her condition has changed or deteriorated since the SSA determination and alleges a new period of disability which meets the duration requirement, and has not applied to SSA regarding these allegations. See GIS 10-MA-014 and 08 OHIP/INF-03.[4] [1] Potential wrinkle – for some clients Medicaid is not automatically pick up cost-sharing. In Monroe County we have had several cases where SSA began deducting Medicare Part B premiums from the checks of clients who were receiving SSI and Medicaid and then qualified for Medicare. The process should be automatic.

Please contact Geoffrey Hale in our Rochester office if you encounter any cases like this. [2]Under terms established to provide benefits for QMBs, a provider agreement necessary for reimbursement “may be executed through the submission of a claim to the Medicaid agency requesting Medicaid payment for Medicare deductibles and coinsurance for QMBs.” CMS State Medicaid Manual, Chapter 3, Eligibility, 3490.14 (b), available at. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/Manuals/PBM/itemdetail.asp?. ItemID=CMS021927.

[3]Benchmark plans are free if you are an LIS recipient. The amount of the benchmark changes from year to year. In 2013, a Part D plan in New York State is considered benchmark if it provides basic Part D coverage and its monthly premium is $43.22 or less. [4] These citations courtesy of Jim Murphy at Legal Services of Central New York.

This site provides general information only. This is not legal advice. You can only obtain legal advice from a lawyer. In addition, your use of this site does not create an attorney-client relationship.

To contact a lawyer, visit http://lawhelp.org/ny. We make every effort to keep these materials and links up-to-date and in accordance with New York City, New York state and federal law. However, we do not guarantee the accuracy of this information..

Maximizing health click here to investigate coverage lasix 40mg price in canada for DAP clients. Before and after winning the case Outline prepared by Geoffrey Hale and Cathy Roberts - updated August 2012 This outline is intended to assist Disability Advocacy Program (DAP) advocates maximize health insurance coverage for clients they are representing on Social Security/SSI disability determinations. We begin with a discussion of coverage options available while your client’s DAP case is pending and then outline the effect winning the DAP case lasix 40mg price in canada can have on your client’s access to health care coverage. How your client is affected will vary depending on the source and amount of disability income he or she receives after the successful appeal. I.

BACKGROUND lasix 40mg price in canada. Public health coverage for your clients will primarily be provided by Medicaid and Medicare. The two programs are structured differently and have different eligibility criteria, but in order to provide the most complete lasix 40mg price in canada coverage possible for your clients, they must work effectively together. Understanding their interactions is essential to ensuring benefits for your client. Here is a brief overview of the programs we will cover.

A. Medicaid. Medicaid is the public insurance program jointly funded by the federal, state and local governments for people of limited means. For federal Medicaid law, see 42 U.S.C. § 1396 et seq., 42 C.F.R.

§ 430 et seq. Regular Medicaid is described in New York’s State Plan and codified at N.Y. Soc. Serv. L.

§§ 122, 131, 363- 369-1. 18 N.Y.C.R.R. § 360, 505. New York also offers several additional programs to provide health care benefits to those whose income might be too high for Regular Medicaid. i.

Family Health Plus (FHPlus) is an extension of New York’s Medicaid program that provides health coverage for adults who are over-income for regular Medicaid. FHPlus is described in New York’s 1115 waiver and codified at N.Y. Soc. Serv. L.

§369-ee. ii. Child Health Plus (CHPlus) is a sliding scale premium program for children who are over-income for regular Medicaid. CHPlus is codified at N.Y. Pub.

Health L. §2510 et seq. b. Medicare. Medicare is the federal health insurance program providing coverage for the elderly, disabled, and people with end-stage renal disease.

Medicare is codified under title XVIII of the Social Security Law, see 42 U.S.C. § 1395 et seq., 42 C.F.R. § 400 et seq. Medicare is divided into four parts. i.

Part A covers hospital, skilled nursing facility, home health, and hospice care, with some deductibles and coinsurance. Most people are eligible for Part A at no cost. See 42 U.S.C. § 1395c, 42 C.F.R. Pt.

406. ii. Part B provides medical insurance for doctor’s visits and other outpatient medical services. Medicare Part B has significant cost-sharing components. There are monthly premiums (the standard premium in 2012 is $99.90.

In addition, there is a $135 annual deductible (which will increase to $155 in 2010) as well as 20% co-insurance for most covered out-patient services. See 42 U.S.C. § 1395k, 42 C.F.R. Pt. 407.

iii. Part C, also called Medicare Advantage, provides traditional Medicare coverage (Parts A and B) through private managed care insurers. See 42 U.S.C. § 1395w, 42 C.F.R. Pt.

422. Premium amounts for Medicare Advantage plans vary. Some Medicare Advantage plans include prescription drug coverage. iv. Part D is an optional prescription drug benefit available to anyone with Medicare Parts A and B.

See 42 U.S.C. § 1395w, 42 C.F.R. § 423.30(a)(1)(i) and (ii). Unlike Parts A and B, Part D benefits are provided directly through private plans offered by insurance companies. In order to receive prescription drug coverage, a Medicare beneficiary must join a Part D Plan or participate in a Medicare Advantage plan that provides prescription drug coverage.

C. Medicare Savings Programs (MSPs). Funded by the State Medicaid program, MSPs help eligible individuals meet some or all of their cost-sharing obligations under Medicare. See N.Y. Soc.

Serv. L. § 367-a(3)(a), (b), and (d). There are three separate MSPs, each with different eligibility requirements and providing different benefits. i.

Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB). The QMB program provides the most comprehensive benefits. Available to those with incomes at or below 100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), the QMB program covers virtually all Medicare cost-sharing obligations. Part B premiums, Part A premiums, if there are any, and any and all deductibles and co-insurance. ii.

Special Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB). For those with incomes between 100% and 120% FPL, the SLMB program will cover Part B premiums only. iii. Qualified Individual (QI-1). For those with incomes between 120% and 135% FPL, but not otherwise Medicaid eligible, the QI-1 program covers Medicare Part B premiums.

D. Medicare Part D Low Income Subsidy (LIS or “Extra Help”). LIS is a federal subsidy administered by CMS that helps Medicare beneficiaries with limited income and/or resources pay for some or most of the costs of Medicare prescription drug coverage. See 42 C.F.R. § 423.773.

Some of the costs covered in full or in part by LIS include the monthly premiums, annual deductible, co-payments, and the coverage gap. Individuals eligible for Medicaid, SSI, or MSP are deemed eligible for full LIS benefitsSee 42 C.F.R. § 423.773(c). LIS applications are treated as (“deemed”) applications for MSP benefits, See the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act (MIPPA) of 2008, Pub. Law 110-275.

II. WHILE THE DAP APPEAL IS PENDING Does your client have health insurance?. If not, why isn’t s/he getting Medicaid, Family Health Plus or Child Health Plus?. There have been many recent changes which expand eligibility and streamline the application process. All/most of your DAP clients should qualify.

Significant changes to Medicaid include. Elimination of the resource test for certain categories of Medicaid applicants/recipients and all applicants to the Family Health Plus program. N.Y. Soc. Serv.

L. §369-ee (2), as amended by L. 2009, c. 58, pt. C, § 59-d.

As of October 1, 2009, a resource test is no longer required for these categories. Elimination of the fingerprinting requirement. N.Y. Soc. Serv.

L. §369-ee, as amended by L. 2009, c. 58, pt. C, § 62.

Elimination of the waiting period for CHPlus. N.Y. Pub. Health L. §2511, as amended by L.

2008, c. 58. Elimination of the face-to-face interview requirement for Medicaid, effective April 1, 2010. N.Y. Soc.

Serv. L. §366-a (1), as amended by L. 2009, c. 58, pt.

C, § 60. Higher income levels for Single Adults and Childless Couples. N.Y. Soc. Serv.

L. §366(1)(a)(1),(8) as amended by L. 2008, c. 58. See also.

GIS 08 MA/022. Higher income levels for Medicaid’s Medically Needy program. N.Y. Soc. Serv.

L. §366(2)(a)(7) as amended by L. 2008, c. 58. See also.

GIS 08 MA/022 More detailed information on recent changes to Medicaid is available at. III. AFTER CLIENT IS AWARDED DAP BENEFITS a. Medicaid eligibility. Clients receiving even $1.00 of SSI should qualify for Medicaid automatically.

The process for qualifying will differ, however, depending on the source of payment. 1. Clients Receiving SSI Only. i. These clients are eligible for full Medicaid without a spend-down.

ii. Medicaid coverage is automatic. No separate application/ recertification required. iii. Most SSI-only recipients are required to participate in Medicaid managed care.

2. Concurrent (SSI/SSD) cases. Eligible for full Medicaid since receiving SSI. See N.Y. Soc.

Serv http://holmeswestern.com/. L. § 366(2). 3. SSD only clients.

I. They can still qualify for Medicaid but may have a spend-down. Federal Law allows states to use a “spend-down” to extend Medicaid to “medically needy” persons in the federal mandatory categories (children, caretakers, elderly and disabled people) whose income or resources are above the eligibility level for regular Medicaid. See 42 U.S.C. § 1396 (a) (10) (ii) (XIII).

ii. Under spend-down, applicants in New York’s Medically Needy program can qualify for Medicaid once their income/resources, minus incurred medical expenses, fall below the specified level. For an explanation of spend-down, see 96 ADM 15. B. Family Health Plus Until your client qualifies for Medicare, those over-income for Medicaid may qualify for Family Health Plus without needing to satisfy a spend-down.

It covers adults without children with income up to 100% of the FPL and adults with children up to 150% of the FPL.[1] The eligibility tests are the same as for regular Medicaid with two additional requirements. Applicants must be between the ages of 19 and 64 and they generally must be uninsured. See N.Y. Soc. Serv.

L. § 369-ee et. Seq. Once your client begins to receive Medicare, he or she will not be eligible for FHP, because FHP is generally only available to those without insurance. For more information on FHP see our article on Family Health Plus.

IV. LOOMING ISSUES - MEDICARE ELIGIBILITY (WHETHER YOU LIKE IT OR NOT) a. SSI-only cases Clients receiving only SSI aren’t eligible for Medicare until they turn 65, unless they also have End Stage Renal Disease. B. Concurrent (SSD and SSI) cases 1.

Medicare eligibility kicks in beginning with 25th month of SSD receipt. See 42 U.S.C. § 426(f). Exception. In 2000, Congress eliminated the 24-month waiting period for people diagnosed with ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease.) See 42 U.S.C.

§ 426 (h) 2. Enrollment in Medicare is a condition of eligibility for Medicaid coverage. These clients cannot decline Medicare coverage. (05 OMM/ADM 5. Medicaid Reference Guide p.

344.1) 3. Medicare coverage is not free. Although most individuals receive Part A without any premium, Part B has monthly premiums and significant cost-sharing components. 4. Medicaid and/or the Medicare Savings Program (MSP) should pick up most of Medicare’s cost sharing.

Most SSI beneficiaries are eligible not only for full Medicaid, but also for the most comprehensive MSP, the Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB) program. I. Parts A &. B (hospital and outpatient/doctors visits). A.

Medicaid will pick up premiums, deductibles, co-pays. N.Y. Soc. Serv. L.

§ 367-a (3) (a). For those not enrolled in an MSP, SSA normally deducts the Part B premium directly from the monthly check. However, SSI recipients are supposed to be enrolled automatically in QMB, and Medicaid is responsible for covering the premiums. Part B premiums should never be deducted from these clients’ checks.[1] Medicaid and QMB-only recipients should NEVER be billed directly for Part A or B services. Even non-Medicaid providers are supposed to be able to bill Medicaid directly for services.[2] Clients are only responsible for Medicaid co-pay amount.

See 42 U.S.C. § 1396a (n) ii. Part D (prescription drugs). a. Clients enrolled in Medicaid and/or MSP are deemed eligible for Low Income Subsidy (LIS aka Extra Help).

See 42 C.F.R. § 423.773(c). SSA POMS SI § 01715.005A.5. New York State If client doesn’t enroll in Part D plan on his/her own, s/he will be automatically assigned to a benchmark[3] plan. See 42 C.F.R.

§ 423.34 (d). LIS will pick up most of cost-sharing.[3] Because your clients are eligible for full LIS, they should have NO deductible and NO premium if they are in a benchmark plan, and will not be subject to the coverage gap (aka “donut hole”). See 42 C.F.R. §§ 423.780 and 423.782. The full LIS beneficiary will also have co-pays limited to either $1.10 or $3.30 (2010 amounts).

See 42 C.F.R. § 423.104 (d) (5) (A). Other important points to remember. - Medicaid co-pay rules do not apply to Part D drugs. - Your client’s plan may not cover all his/her drugs.

- You can help your clients find the plan that best suits their needs. To figure out what the best Part D plans are best for your particular client, go to www.medicare.gov. Click on “formulary finder” and plug in your client’s medication list. You can enroll in a Part D plan through www.medicare.gov, or by contacting the plan directly. €“ Your clients can switch plans at any time during the year.

Iii. Part C (“Medicare Advantage”). a. Medicare Advantage plans provide traditional Medicare coverage (Parts A and B) through private managed care insurers. See 42 U.S.C.

§ 1395w, 42 C.F.R. Pt. 422. Medicare Advantage participation is voluntary. For those clients enrolled in Medicare Advantage Plans, the QMB cost sharing obligations are the same as they are under traditional Medicare.

Medicaid must cover any premiums required by the plan, up to the Part B premium amount. Medicaid must also cover any co-payments and co-insurance under the plan. As with traditional Medicare, both providers and plans are prohibited from billing the beneficiary directly for these co-payments. C. SSD only individuals.

1. Same Medicare eligibility criteria (24 month waiting period, except for persons w/ ALS). I. During the 24 month waiting period, explore eligibility for Medicaid or Family Health Plus. 2.

Once Medicare eligibility begins. ii. Parts A &. B. SSA will automatically enroll your client.

Part B premiums will be deducted from monthly Social Security benefits. (Part A will be free – no monthly premium) Clients have the right to decline ongoing Part B coverage, BUT this is almost never a good idea, and can cause all sorts of headaches if client ever wants to enroll in Part B in the future. (late enrollment penalty and can’t enroll outside of annual enrollment period, unless person is eligible for Medicare Savings Program – see more below) Clients can decline “retro” Part B coverage with no penalty on the Medicare side – just make sure they don’t actually need the coverage. Risky to decline if they had other coverage during the retro period – their other coverage may require that Medicare be utilized if available. Part A and Part B also have deductibles and co-pays.

Medicaid and/or the MSPs can help cover this cost sharing. iii. Part D. Client must affirmatively enroll in Part D, unless they receive LIS. See 42 U.S.C.

§ 1395w-101 (b) (2), 42 C.F.R. § 423.38 (a). Enrollment is done through individual private plans. LIS recipients will be auto-assigned to a Part D benchmark plan if they have not selected a plan on their own. Client can decline Part D coverage with no penalty if s/he has “comparable coverage.” 42 C.F.R.

§ 423.34 (d) (3) (i). If no comparable coverage, person faces possible late enrollment penalty &. Limited enrollment periods. 42 C.F.R. § 423.46.

However, clients receiving LIS do not incur any late enrollment penalty. 42 C.F.R. § 423.780 (e). Part D has a substantial cost-sharing component – deductibles, premiums and co-pays which vary from plan to plan. There is also the coverage gap, also known as “donut hole,” which can leave beneficiaries picking up 100% of the cost of their drugs until/unless a catastrophic spending limit is reached.

The LIS program can help with Part D cost-sharing. Use Medicare’s website to figure out what plan is best for your client. (Go to www.medicare.gov , click on “formulary finder” and plug in your client’s medication list. ) You can also enroll in a Part D plan directly through www.medicare.gov. Iii.

Help with Medicare cost-sharing a. Medicaid – After eligibility for Medicare starts, client may still be eligible for Medicaid, with or without a spend-down. There are lots of ways to help clients meet their spend-down – including - Medicare cost sharing amounts (deductibles, premiums, co-pays) - over the counter medications if prescribed by a doctor. - expenses paid by state-funded programs like EPIC and ADAP. - medical bills of person’s spouse or child.

- health insurance premiums. - joining a pooled Supplemental Needs Trust (SNT). B. Medicare Savings Program (MSP) – If client is not eligible for Medicaid, explore eligibility for Medicare Savings Program (MSP). MSP pays for Part B premiums and gets you into the Part D LIS.

There are no asset limits in the Medicare Savings Program. One of the MSPs (QMB), also covers all cost sharing for Parts A &. B. If your client is eligible for Medicaid AND MSP, enrolling in MSP may subject him/her to, or increase a spend-down, because Medicaid and the various MSPs have different income eligibility levels. It is the client’s choice as to whether or not to be enrolled into MSP.

C. Part D Low Income Subsidy (LIS) – If your client is not eligible for MSP or Medicaid, s/he may still be eligible for Part D Low Income Subsidy. Applications for LIS are also be treated as applications for MSP, unless the client affirmatively indicates that s/he does not want to apply for MSP. d. Medicare supplemental insurance (Medigap) -- Medigap is supplemental private insurance coverage that covers all or some of the deductibles and coinsurance for Medicare Parts A and B.

Medigap is not available to people enrolled in Part C. E. Medicare Advantage – Medicare Advantage plans “package” Medicare (Part A and B) benefits, with or without Part D coverage, through a private health insurance plan. The cost-sharing structure (deductible, premium, co-pays) varies from plan to plan. For a list of Medicare Advantage plans in your area, go to www.medicare.gov – click on “find health plans.” f.

NY Prescription Saver Card -- NYP$ is a state-sponsored pharmacy discount card that can lower the cost of prescriptions by as much as 60 percent on generics and 30 percent on brand name drugs. Can be used during the Part D “donut hole” (coverage gap) g. For clients living with HIV. ADAP [AIDS Drug Assistance Program] ADAP provides free medications for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and opportunistic s. ADAP can be used to help meet a Medicaid spenddown and get into the Part D Low Income subsidy.

For more information about ADAP, go to V. GETTING MEDICAID IN THE DISABLED CATEGORY AFTER AN SSI/SSDI DENIAL What if your client's application for SSI or SSDI is denied based on SSA's finding that they were not "disabled?. " Obviously, you have your appeals work cut out for you, but in the meantime, what can they do about health insurance?. It is still possible to have Medicaid make a separate disability determination that is not controlled by the unfavorable SSA determination in certain situations. Specifically, an applicant is entitled to a new disability determination where he/she.

alleges a different or additional disabling condition than that considered by SSA in making its determination. Or alleges less than 12 months after the most recent unfavorable SSA disability determination that his/her condition has changed or deteriorated, alleges a new period of disability which meets the duration requirement, and SSA has refused to reopen or reconsider the allegations, or the individual is now ineligible for SSA benefits for a non-medical reason. Or alleges more than 12 months after the most recent unfavorable SSA disability determination that his/her condition has changed or deteriorated since the SSA determination and alleges a new period of disability which meets the duration requirement, and has not applied to SSA regarding these allegations. See GIS 10-MA-014 and 08 OHIP/INF-03.[4] [1] Potential wrinkle – for some clients Medicaid is not automatically pick up cost-sharing. In Monroe County we have had several cases where SSA began deducting Medicare Part B premiums from the checks of clients who were receiving SSI and Medicaid and then qualified for Medicare.

The process should be automatic. Please contact Geoffrey Hale in our Rochester office if you encounter any cases like this. [2]Under terms established to provide benefits for QMBs, a provider agreement necessary for reimbursement “may be executed through the submission of a claim to the Medicaid agency requesting Medicaid payment for Medicare deductibles and coinsurance for QMBs.” CMS State Medicaid Manual, Chapter 3, Eligibility, 3490.14 (b), available at. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/Manuals/PBM/itemdetail.asp?. ItemID=CMS021927.

[3]Benchmark plans are free if you are an LIS recipient. The amount of the benchmark changes from year to year. In 2013, a Part D plan in New York State is considered benchmark if it provides basic Part D coverage and its monthly premium is $43.22 or less. [4] These citations courtesy of Jim Murphy at Legal Services of Central New York. This site provides general information only.

This is not legal advice. You can only obtain legal advice from a lawyer. In addition, your use of this site does not create an attorney-client relationship. To contact a lawyer, visit http://lawhelp.org/ny. We make every effort to keep these materials and links up-to-date and in accordance with New York City, New York state and federal law.

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